APA Style - University of Florida

APA Style
RCS 6080
September 7, 2006
Why Use APA Style?
 Allows readers to
cross-reference your
sources easily
 Provides consistent
format within a
 Gives you credibility
as a writer
 Protects you from
Cross-Referencing Your Sources
Cross-referencing allows readers to locate the
publication information of source material.
This is of great value for researchers who
may want to locate your sources for their own
research projects.
“Because one purpose of listing references is to
enable readers to retrieve and use the
sources, reference data must be correct and
complete. …” (APA, 2001, p. 216).
Using a Consistent Format
Using a consistent format helps your
reader understand your
arguments and the sources
they’re built on.
It also helps you keep track of your
sources as you build arguments.
52 APA primary journals; as many as
1000 more in social sciences and
psychology use APA as their style
Establishing Credibility
The proper use of APA style shows the
credibility of writers; such writers show
accountability to their source material.
“[Because] authors are responsible for all
information in their reference lists. Accurately
prepared references help establish your
credibility as a careful researcher” (APA,
2001, p. 216).
Avoiding Plagiarism
 Academic honesty and integrity!
 Proper citation of your sources in APA style can help
you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense. It may
result in anything from failure of the assignment to
expulsion from school.
 You are academically dishonest if:
 Someone writes your paper for you
 You purchase a paper
 You copy a paper from online
 You fail to cite your sources
 Your present someone else’s ideas as your own
Quick Background of the Publication Manual
of the American Psychological Association
 1928: Meeting of editors of anthropological and psychological
February 1929: 7 page article in Psychological Bulletin.
 Just recommended a standard procedure – did not dictate the
style to authors.
1952: 1st edition – 60 page supplement to Psychological Bulletin.
1974: 2nd edition – 136 pages
1983: 3rd edition – APA style became a major guide for publishing
1994: 4th edition – APA style became more specific and sensitive
2001: 5th edition – Builds on 4th edition and is now a whopping
439 pages!
APA Style
 Content & Organization of a Manuscript
 Expressing Ideas & Reducing Bias in
 Editorial Style
 Reference List
Content & Organization
 Parts of a Manuscript
 Title Page
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Method
 Results
 Discussion
 Multiple Experiments
 References
 Appendix
 Author Note
Title Page
 Title (centered, upper ½ of page, ds)
 Author’s name (1 ds below title)
 Institutional affiliation or course identification
(ds below author’s name)
 Manuscript page header (upper right corner,
1st 2 or 3 words of title, 5 spaces, then page
 Running head
Running Head
 Abbreviated title
 Maximum 50 characters including letters,
punctuation, and spaces
 All CAPS
 Left-justified below manuscript page header
 Example:
Running head: GENERATION X
Disability Attitudes
The Development and Psychometric Validation of
the Disability Attitudes Implicit Association Test
Steven R. Pruett
University of Florida
 Brief comprehensive summary
 Usually no more than120 words
 Concise
 Self-contained
 Non-evaluative
 Coherent
 Readable
Note: Manual has specific guidelines for empirical studies, reviews
and theoretical pieces, methodological works, and case studies.
Objectives: Develop and validate the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test (DA-IAT). Participants:
Two hundred twenty three rehabilitation counseling students. Outcome Measures: DA-IAT, Attitude Toward
Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP), Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, Collett-Lester Fear of Death
Scale, Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice Toward People with Disabilities
Scales, Contact with Disabled Persons Scale, and Demographics. Results: DA-IAT congruent associations
(disability+negative/non-disabled+positive) occurred more frequently than incongruent associations
(disability+positive/non-disabled+negative). DA-IAT had no relationship with ATDP, an explicit attitude
measure. Demographics did not predict DA-IAT scores. Contact with Disabled Persons Scale was the
dominant predictor for the DA-IAT. Conclusions: The DA-IAT has potential of becoming a useful measure
of implicit group disability attitudes based on experience versus belief.
[Abstract=117 words]
Keywords: Attitudes Measurement, Disabled (Attitude Towards), Psychosocial Factors, Demographics,
Student Attitudes
First Page of Text
 Includes manuscript page header
 Full title is centered on the top line of the
 DS, only, between title and first line of text
Note. Double space, only, throughout the entire document.
 The levels of heading are established by format or
 The hierarchy of sections help orient the reader to the
structure of the manuscript – they function as an
 Topics of equal importance have the same level of
heading throughout the manuscript.
 Start each section with the highest level of heading,
even if one section may have fewer levels of
subheading than another section
Headings - Continued
(Level 5)
Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
(Level 1)
Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
(Level 2)
Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading
(Level 3)
Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending
with a period.
(Level 4)
One Level Heading
Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
(Level 1)
Two levels (use level 1 & 3)
Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
(Level 1)
Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading
(Level 3)
Orientation of Client
Three levels (Use level 1, 3 and 4)
Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
(Level 1)
Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading
(Level 3)
Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. (Level 4)
Early childhood.
Handling Quotes in Your Text
 If directly quoted from another
author’s work should be reproduced
word for word
 Short quotations (fewer than 40
words) are incorporated into the
text, enclosed with double quotation
 Must be accompanied by a
reference citation with a page
Example of a Short Quotation
Matkin (1985) stated “the compensation
principle and accident prevention form an
intertwined relationship whereby one
enhances the other” (p. 29).
 At end of sentence – close quoted passage
with quotation marks, cite the source in
parentheses after marks, and end with the
period or other punctuation outside the final
Example of Mid-Sentence Quote
He found “Assessment or decisionmaking interviews are generally more
focused” (Zastrow, 1998, p. 86) than
other types of interview formats.
 In midsentence - End the passage with quotation
marks, cite source in parentheses immediately after
the quotation marks, and continue the sentence.
 Use no other punctuation unless meaning of
sentence requires it.
Example of Long Quote
Wang, Thomas, Chan, and Cheing (2003) stated the following:
Conjoint analysis has the potential to augment the study of attitudes
toward disabilities in rehabilitation psychology research. Specifically,
as an indirect measurement, conjoint analysis is less prone to social
desirability effects. The trade-off method used in conjoint analysis to
study people’s attitudes toward disability closely approximates human
decision making in real life. Hence both conjoint measurements and
conjoint analysis could increase the ability of rehabilitation psychology
researchers to understand factors contributing to the formation of
attitudes/preferences in multiple social contexts. (p. 200-201)
 At end of block quote – Cite the quoted source in parentheses
after the final punctuation mark
 Do not single space long quotes. Indent 5-7 spaces from the left
margin without the usual paragraph indent.
 General rule is to use figures to express
numbers 10 and above
The client is 25 years old
Mr. Roberts has had 12 arrests
 Use words to express numbers below 10
Nora Edwards has had three previous
Always as numerals: Dates, Ages, Exact sums
of money, scores and points on a scale,
numbers and precise measurements
Each item on the Beck Depression Index is
scored on a 5-point scale
The client receives $8 per completed hour.
Always as words: Any number that begins a
sentence, common fractions
Twelve participants were involved in the focus
groups; one-half of them were female.
Parenthetical (Within-Text)
 Author’s(s’) last name
 Year of publication
 Page number (if quoting)
 Example:
(Chan, 2000, p. 17)
Parenthetical Citations
Multiple Authors
 2 authors – cite both names separated by &
(Rubin & Roessler, 2002, p. 127)
 3-5 authors – cite all authors first time; after first time,
use et al.
(Chan et al., 2000)
 6 or more authors – cite first author’s name and et al.
(Rosenthal et al., 1992)
Parenthetical Citations
Multiple Citations
 Multiple sources from same author –
chronological order, separated by comma.
(Thomas, 1998, 1999, in press)
 Within same year:
(Chan, 1998a, 1998b, 1999, in press)
Parenthetical Citations
Multiple Citations Continued
 Multiple sources – separated by semicolon,
alphabetical order
(Chan, 1998; Pruett, 2005; Thomas, 1992)
Handling Parenthetical Citations
 If the source has no
known author, then use
an abbreviated version
of the title:
Full Title: “California
Cigarette Tax Deters
Citation: (“California,”
Handling Parenthetical Citations
 A reference to a personal
Source: email message from
Hanoch Livneh
Citation: (H. Livneh, personal
communication, November 22,
 A general reference to a web site
Source: University of Florida web
Citation: (http://www.ufl.edu)
Reference Citations in Text
 If author(s) name is part of narrative, cite only year of
publication in parentheses
Hess, Marwitz and Kreutzer (2003) report treatment
planning following a spinal cord injury should include
methods for identifying cognitive deficits.
On rare occasions you may have the year and author
with no parentheses.
In 2000 Walker compared reaction times
Keys to Parenthetical Citations
 Keep references brief
 Give only information
needed to identify the
source on your
reference page
 Do not repeat
Handling Quotes in Your Text
There are many different
combinations and
variations within APA
citation format.
If you run into something
unusual, look it up!
Reference List – General
 On a separate page
 References (the title) is centered
on top line
Alphabetical list of works cited
If same author cited more than
once, chronologically listed
Double spaced
Hanging indent
Titles of works and volume
number in italics
Reference List – Journal Article
 Garske, G. G. (2000). The significance of
rehabilitation counselor job satisfaction. Journal
of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 31(3), 1013.
 Shaw, L. R., & Tarvydas, V. M. (2001). The use of
professional disclosure in rehabilitation
counseling. Rehabilitation Counseling
Bulletin, 45, 40-47.
 Weinrach, S.G., Thomas, K.R., Pruett, S.R., & Chan,
F. (in press). Scholarly productivity of three
American counseling and counseling psychology
journals. International Journal for the
Advancement of Counselling.
Reference List – Book
 Falvo, D. (2005). Medical and Psychosocial Aspects
of Chronic Illness and Disability. Sudbury, MA:
Jones and Bartlett.
 Zaretsky, H.H., Richter, E.F., & Eisenberg, M.G.
(Eds.) (2005). Medical Aspects of Disability (3rd
ed.). New York: Springer Publishing.
 American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic
and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th
ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Reference List – Book Chapter
 Chan, F., Pruett, S.R., Miller, S., Frain, M., &
Blalock, K. (2006). Internet utilization by
people with disabilities: Applications and
research direction. In K. Hagglund, &
A.W. Heinemann (Eds.), Handbook of
Applied Disability and Rehabilitation
Research (pp. 263-278). New York:
Springer Publishing.
Reference List
Electronic Media
Internet articles based on a print source (exact
replicate – usually a pdf file)
Smith, S., & Jones, T. (2001). The impact of authoritative
supervisors on job retention {Electronic version}.
Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 12(2), 110112.
Internet articles that are not exactly as the printed
article (i.e., htlm, doc, or txt files)
Smith, S., & Jones, T. (2001). The impact of authoritative
supervisors on job retention. Journal of Applied
Rehabilitation Counseling, 12(2), 110-112. Retrieved
October 13, 2001, from http://jarc.org/articles
Reference List
Electronic Media
Articles in an Internet only journal
James, T. (2001, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to
optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3,
Article 01a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from
Stand alone document, no author
identified, no date.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (n.d.).
Retrieved August 8, 2000, from
APA Writing Style Rules:
 Avoid abbreviations except for long familiar
terms (MMPI).
 Explain what the abbreviation means at the
first occurrence: American Psychological
Association (APA).
 If an abbreviation is commonly used as a
word, it does not require explanation (IQ,
 Use two-letter postal codes for U.S. state
Language Exerts a Powerful
Avoiding Biased and Pejorative
 Be more specific, not less
 Use age ranges rather than broad categories
 Use the phrase Men and women – rather than generic
 Avoid the generic “he”
 Specific ethnic or racial labeling
 Mention differences only when relevant
Be Sensitive to Labels
 Use person-first
language when
describing and
individual or group of
people with a disability.
Example: people over
the age of 65, people
with learning
Standards of Comparison
 Be aware of hidden standards that compare
the study group to an invisible (standard)
Example: “culturally deprived” (by what
 Unparallel nouns
Example: man and wife - Instead: husband
and wife
Acknowledge Participation
 Replace the impersonal term “subjects” with
- participants
- individuals
- college students
- children
Where Do I Find APA Style and
 Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association, 5th ed.
 Some other good links:
Software for APA Style
 APA Style Helper 5
 Walks you through a paper as you create it
 Helps format references, headings etc
 Includes a reference builder
 Works with most word processors
 From APA – costs $40
 MS Word Template for APA format
 Headings and Format in APA style (no help with
 From Microsoft Office Web site, Free, only good with
Microsoft Word.
Software for APA Style
 Citation Software
 EndNote 9.0 (endnote.com)
 ProCite 5.0 (procite.com)
 Software Reference Manager 11.01 (refman.com)
 Biblioscape 6.0 (biblioscape.com)
 All have versions for Mac (OS X) as well as Windows
(98 – XP) & support a variety of word processors
(except Biblioscape – Windows only)
 Cost: $110 – $200 (Education prices)
A Word (or two) on Purchases
 NOTE: I am not recommending you
purchase ANY of these software products. I
do not use any of them and do not know how
well they work. The purpose of this list is to
let you know what is out there, but you should
practice the maxim “let the buyer beware.”
 I would recommend you purchase the APA
Publication Manual (5th ed.).