Teamwork

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Teamwork
José Onofre Montesa Andrés
Universidad Politécnica de
Valencia
Escuela Superior de
Informática Aplicada
2003-2004
Introduction
• The actually need of obtain new
products in a little time.
• Teamwork are associate with
effectiveness and efficiency.
• In same situations individual human
being is insufficient, and this is the
reason management needs to focus on
teams.
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Why have teams become so
popular?
• Outperforms individuals when the task
being done require:
– Multiple skills.
– Judgment.
– Experience.
• Better utilize employee talents.
• More flexibility.
• Motivational properties.
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Difference between group and
team.
• Group interacts primarily to share
information and to make decisions to
help each member perform within his or
her area of responsibility.
• Work team is a group whose individual
effort in a performance that is greater
than the sum of those individual inputs.
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Work group
Work teams
Synergy and coordinated effort
Share information
Neutral (st. negative)
Individual
Random and varied
Goal
Collective Performance
Synergy
Positive
Accountability
Individual and mutual
Skills
Complementary
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Team work are interesting for
management
• If we have positive
synergy
– We will increase
output with no
increase in inputs.
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Types of teams
• Problem Solving Teams
• Self-managed Work Teams
• Cross-functional Teams
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Problem Solving Teams
• 5-12; = dep.; few h/week; improve q.
• Example: quality circles
?
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Self-managed Work Teams
• Groups of 10 a 15 people who
take on responsibilities of
their former supervisors.
• Include
– Collective control over the
pace of work,
– Work assignments.
– Organization of breaks.
– Choice of inspection
procedures.
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Cross-functional Teams
• Employees from about the same
hierarchical level, but from different
work areas, who come together to
accomplish a task.
• Task force (temporary)
• Committees
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Linking Teams and group
concepts.
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Size of Work Teams
Abilities of members
Allocating Roles
Diversity
Having a Commitment to a Common Purpose
Establishing Specific Goals
Leadership and Structure
Social Loafing and Accountability
Performance Evaluation and Rewards.
High Mutual Trust
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Size of Work Teams
• Best smalls.
– More than 10 to 12 members difficult…
• Large can’t develop…
– Cohesiveness, commitment, and mutual
accountability.
• If we have more… break the group into
subgroups.
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Abilities of members
• Complementary
• Types
– Technical expertise,
– Problem solving and decisionmaking skills,
– Interpersonal skills.
• Don’t need to have all the
complementary skills in place
at their beginning…same can
learn,… but is necessary to
reach its full potential.
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Allocating Roles
• Put individuals into jobs that are compatible
with their personalities.
• People should be selected for a team based
on their personalities and preferences.
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Team Roles
• Creator-innovators
• Imaginative and good at
initiating ideas..
• Independent and work on
their own.
• Explorer-Promoters
• Like to take new ideas and
champion their cause.
• Assessor-Developers
• Analyze decision options
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Team Roles
• Thruster-Organizers
– Provides structure
• Concluder-Producers
– Provide direction and
follow through.
• ControllerInspectors
– Check for details
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Team Roles
• UpholderMaintainers
– Fight external
battles.
• Reporter-Advisers
– Seek full information.
• Linkers
– Coordinate and
integrate.
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Diversity
• Managers need to understand the
individuals strengths that each person
can bring to a team.
• Football,…
– Better if different people
– Need people in all the functions.
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Having a Commitment to a
Common Purpose
• Does the team a meaningful purpose
that all members aspire to?
– Apple – Macintosh
• Members of successful teams put a
tremendous amount of time and effort
into discussing, shaping and agreeing on
propose that belongs to them both
collective and individually.
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Establishing Specific Goals
• Successful teams translate their
common purpose into:
– specific
– Measurable
– Realistic
• Goals
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Leadership and Structure
• To provide focus and direction.
• By managers or other members, better:
– Explorer-promoter, thruster-organizer,
concluder-producer, upholder-maintainer, or
Linker.
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Social Loafing and
Accountability
• It’s limited.
– People know their responsibilities as team and
individually.
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Performance Evaluation and
Rewards
• Reflect team
performance.
– Group based
appraisal, Profit
sharing, .
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High Mutual Trust
• Characterize high
performance teams.
• But trust is fragile
– It takes a long time to
build
– Can be easy destroyed
– Is hard to regain.
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High Mutual Trust
– Integrity.
• Honesty and truthfulness
– Competence
• Technical, interpersonal
– Consistency
• Reliability, Predictability and good judgment
– Loyalty
• Willingness to protect and save face for a person.
– Openness
• Willingness to share ideas and information freely.
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Building trust
• Demonstrate that you are working for others’
interest as well as your own.
• Be a team player (defend).
• Practice openness.
• Be fair (objectivity and fairness).
• Speak your feelings (human).
• Show consistency in the basic values that
guide your decision making.
• Maintain confidences.
• Demonstrate competence.
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Turning individuals into team players.
• Many people are not inherently team
players.
• Individual achievements
• Loners
• Steps
– The challenge
– Shaping Team Players
– Rewards
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The challenge
• A barrier to teams is individual
resistance
– Success no as individual performance
– Sublimate personal goals for the good of
teams.
• The challenge is greatest if
– Culture is individualistic
– Historically we have reward individuals.
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Shaping Team Players
• Selection
– What do you think about teamwork?
• Training
– Experience the satisfaction that
teamwork can provide
• Rewards
– Promotions, pay raises, …, should be
given to individuals for how effective
they are as team members.
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And when it works
• If teams are mature and performing,
• Manager’s job isn’t over...
– Stagnant
– Complacent
• Managers need to support teams
with:
– Advice and guidance,
– Training if these teams are to continue
improve.
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