Chapter 19 - Glasgow Independent Schools

Choosing and Caring for Your Clothes
Section 19-1 Clothing Needs
list ways in which clothing meets
physical needs
explain how clothing satisfies
psychological and social needs
choose clothing that would be
appropriate for specific occasions
Clothing Needs
Key Terms
Lifestyle - a person’s way of life or style of living
Uniforms - distinctive outfits that identify those who
wear them with a specific group
Dress codes - standards of dress that are enforced in a
social setting
Modesty - the proper way to cover the body in various
Status - a person’s rank within a group
Factors That Influence
Clothing Decisions
Many factors influence your clothing decisions like, basic needs, peers’
opinions, what your clothes say about you, and activities you will be
Important Factors that influence clothing decisions:
Physical Needs
Clothes help meet basic physical needs to protect your body from
weather, environmental dangers and occupational hazards.
Many of your physical needs for clothing are determined by your
lifestyle - clothing choices are dictated by your daily activities
Factors That Influence
Clothing Decisions
Psychological Needs
Certain colors, fabrics, and
styles of clothing can affect how
you feel (ex. bright colors make
you happy, soft fabrics make
you relax)
Choosing clothes you find
appealing gives you a sense of
Wearing clothes that enhance
your appearance can boost your
*Social acceptance plays a big role in clothing choices especially for
*Teen often wears clothes that identify them with a specific group
* They may use clothing to exhibit a desired level of status and
conforms to styles worn by their friends
Clothing is used as a sign of belonging to a certain group
Uniforms are used to immediately identify someone with a
Name some examples of groups that can be identified with
Dress Codes
Formal dress codes are based on the belief that how
people dress tends to affect their behavior
Employers believe that requiring employees to wear
professional clothing encourages them to act
Schools have dress codes that are designed to keep
both teachers and students from wearing clothes that
distract from teaching and learning
*Swimsuits are consider
immodest are school or work
because they do not cover enough
of the body
*Some religious and ethnic
groups have informal dress codes
that are stricter than society
*People often use clothes are a sign of their status
*Certain garments, styles, and brands carry a higher status than others
*People who want certain status desire clothes that display specific brand
names and logos
*Wearing these clothes can cause some teens to feel they have a higher
Choosing Clothes for Specific
You need different types of
clothes for different occasions
You will need clothing that
reflects your career choice
when you go to an interview
Choosing the right clothes for
the occasion can greatly
influence your personal
*identify the colors that look best on you
*explain how line, texture, and form can affect the
way clothes look on you
*apply the elements and principles of design to
clothing selection
Clothing Design Basics
Key Terms
Elements of design - color, line, texture, and the form as used in artistic design
Hue - the name given to a color
Value - refers to the lightness or darkness of a color, such as light green and dark
Intensity - the brightness or dullness of a color
Color wheel - a tool that shows how colors relate to one another
Primary colors - Colors that cannot be created from other colors, such as yellow,
blue, and red
Secondary color - Colors created by mixing equal amounts of two primary colors
Clothing Design Basics
Key Terms
Intermediate color - a color produced from equal amounts of one
primary color and one secondary color
Neutrals - black, white, and gray, which are not true colors but are
used as colors in design
Line - the design element that gives direction to a design
Texture - a design element that affects the way a design looks and
Form - a design element that defines the shape of an object
Clothing Design Basics
Key Terms
Principals of design - balance, proportion, rhythm, and emphasis used as
guides for combining the elements of design
Balance - equal visual weight on both sides of a central point
Proportion - the spatial relationship of the parts of a design to each other and
to the whole design
Rhythm - a principle of design that creates a feeling of movement in a design
Emphasis - the center of interest in a design
Harmony - a pleasing effect achieved when the elements of design complement
one another
Clothes can enhance your
Clothes can highlight your best
features or they can draw
attention to problem areas
Which of your clothes are most
flattering? Do they have
anything in common? Same
lines, texture, color?
Color is the most exciting of all
the design elements
Color is an expression of you
because it reveals something
about your looks, feelings, and
Knowing how to use color can
help you enhance your best
Color Characteristic
The color used in clothing is pigment, which is the
substance that gives color to other materials
Color has three distinct characteristics
Hue - distinguishes one color from another (red,
blue, violate, orange, etc.)
Value - the value changes when either black or
white is added to it
Adding black creates a shade (adding black to
red = burgundy) and adding white creates a
tint (adding white to red = pink)
Intensity - bright colors like red or yellow have
high intensity, pale colors like pink or violet have
softer, less intense appearance
The Color Wheel
The color wheel shows the primary,
secondary, and intermediate colors
Primary colors are equally spaced from one
another on the color wheel. By mixing,
darkening, or lightening the primary colors
you can fill in the rest of the color wheel
Each secondary color lies halfway between
the two primary colors used to make it
Intermediate colors lie between the colors
used to make them. Their names come
from the colors that make them with the
primary color always listed first (ex redorange, blue-green)
*When you select clothing you use the color wheel to create a color scheme
*Three common color schemes are monochromatic, analogous,
*Monochromatic is using different values of the same hue (maroon
skirt, with a pink shirt)
*Analogous is combining adjacent colors on the color wheel (blue and
*Complementary is combining two colors that are directly across
from each other on the color wheel (orange shirt with blue jeans
Warm and Cool Colors
Colors on the color wheel are considered either warm or cool
Warm colors are related to red, orange, and yellow and are also referred to as advancing
Advancing colors seem to make the body appear larger
Cool colors are related to blue, green, and violet and are also called receding colors
Receding colors make the body appear smaller
Neutrals are not true colors
White is the absence of color; it reflects all light
Black absorbs all color and light
Combining black and white creates another range of neutrals, the grays
The Other Design Elements
Vertical, horizontal, curved, and diagonal lines, are the most common types of lines used
in clothing design
Clothing has structural lines and decorative lines
Structural lines are seams (ex rounded collar vs a pointed collar(
Decorative lines are those added to the fabric or garment to make it visually appealing
(striped fabric has decorative lines)
Braids, buttons, and other trims can be used to add decorative lines
Lines can be used to create optical illusions
Vertical lines tend to make the body look taller and thinner
Horizontal lines tend to make the body look shorter and wider
*Fabric textures can be rough or smooth, shiny or dull, crisp or soft, bulky or silky
*Garment made from soft and silky fabrics slenderize a figure but also reveal the
silhouette (these fabrics are most flattering on those who have few flaws in their shape)
*Fabrics that are crisp and stiff are great for either making a body appear larger or
hiding flaws
The Other Design Elements
Texture cont.
Fabrics with dull textures absorb light
and have a slenderizing effect
Shiny textures reflect light and
increase the apparent size of the body
Stripes, checks, plaids, geometric
shapes, flowers, etc. add visual
Bold color, large plaids, and wide
stripes make a person look shorter
and wider
Small patterns with little contrasting
color make the body look smaller
The Other Design Elements
Your body outline and the clothes
you wear create form
Clothes that produce a full form,
such as a full skirt or wide-legged
pants, may make you appear larger
and heavier
A tubular form, such as a one-color
suit or straight legged pants, may
make you appear taller
The bell shaped form which flatters
most people is created by flared
The principals of design are balance,
proportion, rhythm, and emphasis
Principals of Design
The garment is equally interesting when examined from side to side,
or above and below the waist
No one part of the design overpowers the other
Balance can be formal (symmetrical) or informal (asymmetrical
Formal means both sides are the same (solid colored shirt)
Informal means two sides are different, but have the same visual
impact (a blue shirt with one yellow sleeve and one red sleeve)
The size of one part should balance the size of another part (picture a
man’s suit with a knee-length jacket)
Elements of Design
Creates a feeling of movement
Your eye moves from one part of the design to another
Rhythm is created by using repetition in color, lines, shapes,
or texture
What you see when you first look at an outfit
You can use emphasis to draw attention to or away from an
*The total effect is more important than any of the parts
*An outfit composed of colors and textures that work well
together will give a harmonious appearance
1. develop a wardrobe inventory
2. give guidelines to follow when shopping for clothes
3. recognize common fashion terms
4. evaluate the quality of garments by considering their durability and fit
5. use the information on labels to make wiser clothing sections
6. analyze factors that affect a garment’s cost
Wardrobe - all the clothes and accessories a person has to wear
Accessory - items that accent your clothes, such as shoes, hats,
belts, jewelry, neckties, scarves
Fashion - the manner of dress being worn by the majority of
people at a given time
Style - specific construction details that make one garment differ
from another garment of the same type
Classic - a fashion that never changes drastically and is
therefore worn year after year
Fad - a style that is popular for a short time and then
Labels - a cloth tag permanently attached to a garment to
provide important information usually required by law,
such as fiber content, manufacturer, country of origin, and
care instructions
Hangtag - a tag attached to a garment to provide
information, such as trademarks, guarantees, style number,
size, and price.
A well-planned wardrobe will include appropriate
clothing and accessories for all your activities
Planning Your Wardrobe
1. Separate your needs from your wants
2. Select appropriate clothes for your lifestyle
3. Consider your climate
4. Determine what kinds of clothes meet your
approval and the approval of others
Taking An Inventory
Take inventory of what you already have before your
Make a detailed list of every wearable garment you
Make a list of new clothes your need to buy to replace
any basic items that have worn out
Consider what garments or accessories would help
update your existing wardrobe
Extending Your Wardrobe
Choosing multipurpose clothing means clothing
can be worn several ways to satisfy different needs
Mixing and matching garments makes any outfits
from a few clothing items
Using accessories can give a finished look to your
outfits and let you express your personality
Financial Literacy
Can you afford the garment?
Would you be willing to wait for a
sale price?
How many time you will wear the
How long you will be able to wear a
How much will it cost to maintain?
1.After you make a shopping list, determine
how much money you will have to spend.
2. Prioritize your list so you know what items
to buy first (buy items your will wear most first
like coat or shoes)
1. Refer to the shopping list you made
2. Comparison shop at several different retail
sites before making a decision
3. Buy only what you really need (avoid impulse
$ Comparison shopping is much easier online
$ Customer service is generally reliable and delivery of items to your
home is quick and you can return items
$Retailers offer a wider array of items online and you can locate
difficult to find items more easily
$ Primary drawback is not being able to see, touch, and try on
garments before ordering
Understanding Fashion
Fashion sense is an awareness of what it
takes to achieve a well-dressed look
Fashion, Style, Classic, Fad??? What do
they mean?
Fashion looks can change from year to
Straight legs, flared bottoms, cropped
length are examples of pant styles
Business suits, men’s dress shirts, and
crew-neck sweaters are examples of
People who invest in fad items often
discard them as soon as they go out of
* To keep people buying new clothes, the fashion industry must
constantly produce new designs
* A fashion cycle is the time from the introduction of a new fashion
idea to its eventual decline in popularity
* You will get the most wear from classic garments that last for many
* For variety, add a few inexpensive fad items that you will be able to
reuse in a different way when fashions change
Judging Quality
Durability refers to how a garment will hold up under use
Construction and the fabric affect durability
Check for quality construction features, like secure buttons, neatly
stitched, buttonholes, smooth seams, and matched patterns
A poorly constructed garment will show wear and tear after using
and cleaning it a few times
Fabrics that snag and bag easily will not wear wear well
Crushing a corner of the garment tightly between two fingers will
show how easily the fabric wrinkles
Tips for Looking for Quality
Judging Quality
The fit of a garment refers to how it conforms to
the size and shape of the body of the wearer.
Fitted, semifitted, and loose are the three
categories of fit
If a fitted garment does not fit properly, it will
not lie smoothly
Semifitted and loose garments do not conform to
the body as closely but they must fit properly to
look neat and move freely
You should try garments on before purchasing
You should sit, bend, raise and cross arms and
legs to ensure proper fit
Notice if it pulls or wrinkles
Reading Labels and
Labels Provide the following important facts required by law
The Textile Fiber Products Identification Act requires all products to
identify fiber content, the name of the manufacturer, and the country of
The Care Labeling Rule mandates the listing of specific instructions for a
garment’s care. (machine wash, dry clean)
The Wool Products Labeling Act calls for the type of wool, the percentage
of wool, and its country of origin to be listed
The Fur Products Labeling Act requires the identification of a fur’s
animal source and country of origin
The Flammable Fabrics Act prohibits the sale of very hazardous
materials for use in clothing and requires children’s sleeper to stop a
Reading Labels and
In addition to the required
information, labels may also
list the brand name, size,
special finishes, and
construction features
Hangtags are not required by
law and include useful
information like trademarks,
guarantees, style numbers,
sizes, and prices
Caring For Clothes
explain daily clothing
care for your clothes by
using proper laundering,
drying, ironing, and
storing techniques
Key Terms
Ironing - a process of moving an iron across fabric to smooth
Pressing - process of lifting an iron up and down to apply
pressure in one area of a garment at a time
Dry Cleaning - process of cleaning clothes using an organic
chemical solvent instead of water
Daily Clothing Care
Your clothes will look better and last longer if you care for the
When you put on and take off clothes, try not to damage or soil
Open fasteners, this prevents placing undue strain on any part
of the garment which can result in rips, broken zippers, missing
Avoid allowing clothes to touch your head or face to prevent
stains from hair products, makeup, skin lotions, or sunscreens
When you undress, inspect garments for stains, rips, hanging
threads, and missing buttons so that you can take care of those
issues before washing
Laundering Steps
Read Care Labels
Care labels are required to identify correct care procedures and warn against care
procedures that can damage the item
The label must remain readable for the life of the garment
Care information may be in the form of symbols
If clothing is to be washed, the following information must be included
Washing Method
Water Temperature
Drying Method
Type of beach that can be used
Use of Iron
Ironing Temperatures
Sort Clothes Properly
* The purpose of sorting is to separate items that could cause damage to
* Separate whites from colors, and light colors from bright or dark colors
* Different wash water temperatures are needed to keep some colors from
fading or bleeding
* When fabrics bleed, they emit color to adjacent clothing
* Colorfast means the color will withstand washing, dry cleaning,
perspiration, sunlight, and rubbing
Laundering Steps
Sort Clothes Properly Cont.
Sorting clothes by fabric will help you determine what
wash cycle to use (white cottons and linens need hot water
and a regular wash cycle)
Sort clothes by their surface texture to separate lintcatchers from lint-producers
corduroy, velveteen, and fabrics of manufactured fibers
catch lint
chenille and terry cloth produce lint
Also consider degree of soil
Laundering Steps
Prepare Clothes for Laundering
Be sure all zippers and hooks are closed so they do not get damaged
or cause damage to other items
Repair snags and mend rips and tears to prevent greater damage
Check pockets before putting garments in the washing machine
Pretreat stains and heavy stains
Heavily soiled items should be pretreated by soaking, or by
applying a liquid detergent or a prewash
Always test the product first on an unseen part of the garment to
see if it discolors the fabric
Laundering Steps
Always use the right types of products and follow package
Soaps and Detergents
Soap works best in soft water
Detergents work well in hard or soft water
Detergents come in liquid of powder and should always be
mixed into wash water before clothes are added so it will
dilute or dissolve
Helps remove stains and whitens, disinfects, and deodorizes
Can weaken fabric fibers if used too often
Should not be used on wool, silk, spandex, non colorfast
Oxygen bleach helps remove stains and is milder than
chlorine bleach and safe for all washable fibers
Laundering Steps
Using the Washing Machine
Distribute items evenly in the
washing machine to balance the
Do no overload washer
Too many garments prevent
good circulation of water and
cleaning agents
Select the correct cycle and
water temperature(delicate,
permanent press, regular)
A cold water rinse is suitable for
all fabrics and saves energy
Drying Clothes
Clothes can be dried in a automatic dryer, a clothesline, or on a flat
Tumble drying clothes is convenient and makes softer and more
comfortable to wear
Overloading a dryer can prevent clothes from tumbling freely and they
will probably wrinkle
Larger loads take longer depending on the fabrics
Remove clothes as soon as the dryer stops to prevent wrinkles
Remember to clean your lint filter after each use
There are three common dryer cycles, regular (used on fabrics that are
not heat sensitive) permanent press (moderate heat at start and no heat
last 10 minutes) and air-dry cycle (provides unheated air)
Drying Clothes
Line drying is recommended
for some products and is
often done indoors above
bathtubs or in showers
Outdoor line drying gives
clothes a fresh smell while
saving energy cost
Flat drying is used on
garments like sweaters to
avoid shrinking or stretching
them out of shape. First,
remove excess moisture by
rolling the garment in a towel
Ironing and Pressing
The terms ironing and
pressing are often used
interchangeably but they
have slight different
Always use a heat setting
that is safe for the fabric and
any attached trim
An too hot iron will scorch
some fabrics, melt other, or
create permanent wrinkles
Dry Cleaning
Dry cleaning is a delicate cleaning process and clothes should be
cleaned before they become heavily soiled
Professional dry cleaners know how to treat various fabrics and most
spots and stains and you should always point out stains and how old
the stain is
Most dry cleaners can also restore water-repellent finishes
You can also choose a home in-dryer kit for “dry clean only” garments
Home dry-cleaning kits can remove odors, wrinkles, and light stains
in most linen, silk, wool, and rayon
The home kits may not remove all stains and will NOT give the
“pressed” look of a professional dry cleaner
Environmental Awareness in
Clothing Care
Modern technology has developed laundry
appliances that use energy and water very
Laundry products are continually improved, with
formulas and packaging that are environmentally
Storing Clothes
Always store knit products in drawers
to prevent stretching and sagging
Hang like garments together, like Tshirts, pants, dress clothes, so that
you spend less time searching for
Clothes store on hangers should be
neatly hung
Close top buttons, zippers, and other
fasteners so clothes will retain their
shape and not slip on hanger
Allow space in the closet for clothes to
hang loosely with becoming wrinkled
Storing Clothes
Large boxes that slide
under beds are one storage
option that works well for
When storing out of season
clothes be sure to consider
possibly insect damage
Moths and crickets can eat
holes in your clothes
Store clothes in cedar chest
or use moth balls