E. Pay gaps in certains occupations Pre

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EP EUROBAROMETER Flash
International Women’s day 2012
8 march 2012
Methodology
Methodology
Flash Eurobarometer
o Survey conducted by telephone
o Fieldwork: from 19 to 21 January 2012
o Population: representative sample aged 15 and over
o Coverage: 27 EU Member States
o Number of interviewees: 25,539
3
Structure
Structure
A.
THE GENERAL SITUATION
B.
INEQUALITIES
C.
RECONCILING FAMILY LIFE AND
PROFESSIONAL LIFE
D.
MEASURES TO COMBAT PAY GAPS
E.
THE ISSUE OF GENDER DIVERSITY IN THE
WORKPLACE
F.
CONCLUSION
5
A. THE GENERAL SITUATION
A. Current situation Half of Europeans believe that inequalities are a serious problem in
their country
Total “Serious”: 52%
Total “Not serious” : 45%
Pre-2004 Member States:
55%
Post-2004/2007 Member
States: 44%
7
A. Current situation
An absolute majority believes that this is a serious problem in 10
Member States
Q1. In your opinion, to what extent are gender inequalities a very serious, a fairly serious, a not really serious or
not at all a serious problem at the current time in (OUR COUNTRY)?
8
A. Recent developments
Europeans believe that progress has been made in this area
Pre-2004 Member States: 61%
Post-2004/2007 Member
States: 54%
9
A. Recent developments
In almost all Member States, a majority of respondents believe that
gender inequalities have tended to decrease
Q2. And compared with 10 years ago, would you say that gender inequalities have tended to increase or
decrease in (OUR COUNTRY)?
10
A. General situation
Differences in perceptions between men and women are real, but
minor in terms of perceived changes in levels of inequalities
Q1. In your opinion, to what extent are gender inequalities a
very serious, a fairly serious, a not really serious or not at all
a serious problem at the current time in (OUR COUNTRY)?
Total 'Serious'
Total 'Not serious'
Don't know
52%
45%
3%
Male
46%
51%
3%
Female
58%
39%
3%
Q2. And compared with 10 years ago, would you say that
gender inequalities have tended to increase or decrease in
(OUR COUNTRY)?
Tended to
increase
Tended to
decrease
Have not changed
(SPONTANEOUS)
Don't know
24%
60%
12%
4%
Male
23%
62%
11%
4%
Female
26%
57%
12%
5%
15-24
18%
69%
5%
8%
25-39
20%
67%
9%
4%
40-54
24%
60%
13%
3%
55 +
30%
50%
15%
5%
15-
40%
43%
12%
5%
EU27
EU27
Gender
Age
15-24
48%
50%
2%
25-39
52%
46%
2%
40-54
53%
45%
2%
55 +
54%
42%
4%
Education (End of)
Gender
Age
Education (End of)
16-19
27%
58%
11%
4%
15-
58%
37%
5%
20+
18%
65%
13%
4%
16-19
51%
46%
3%
Still studying
16%
70%
6%
8%
20+
53%
45%
2%
Still studying
50%
48%
2%
Respondent occupation scale
Self- employed
47%
51%
2%
Employés
52%
47%
1%
including managers
49%
50%
1%
Manual workers
46%
50%
4%
Not working
55%
41%
4%
11
B. INEQUALITIES
B. Gender inequalities
Violence against women and pay gaps: most important inequalities
according to Europeans
13
B. Gender inequalities
Significant variations exist between countries: violence is the leading
issue in 12 Member States
In your opinion, which of the gender inequalities in the following list are the most important? First? And then ?
(3 ANSWERS MAXIMUM)
Violence against
women
The small proportion
The pay gap between Trafficking in women, of women in positions
women and men
prostitution
of responsibility in
companies
EU27
48%
43%
36%
30%
ES
74%
42%
42%
22%
SE
64%
53%
47%
21%
RO
62%
23%
54%
20%
LT
60%
41%
40%
12%
IT
58%
23%
37%
32%
PT
57%
35%
42%
27%
EL
55%
23%
47%
20%
DK
51%
34%
60%
15%
MT
50%
31%
34%
31%
UK
50%
35%
47%
23%
FR
49%
54%
24%
37%
SI
48%
33%
26%
31%
BE
47%
50%
35%
32%
14
B. Gender inequalities
Pay gaps are the leading issue in 12 other Member States
IE
44%
27%
48%
29%
AT
43%
61%
30%
32%
SK
43%
47%
29%
27%
CY
42%
34%
35%
21%
BG
41%
34%
39%
19%
FI
41%
57%
28%
25%
CZ
39%
55%
26%
31%
HU
39%
45%
32%
26%
LV
36%
43%
33%
20%
NL
35%
42%
48%
41%
LU
34%
44%
29%
36%
PL
33%
46%
35%
28%
EE
30%
55%
23%
24%
DE
27%
59%
20%
44%
Highest percentage per country
Highest percentage by item
Lowest percentage per country
Lowest percentage by item
15
B. Gender inequalities
Clear differences by age and level of education
In your opinion, which of the gender inequalities in the following list are the most important? First? And then ?
(3 ANSWERS MAXIMUM)
Violence against
women
The pay gap
between women
and men
Trafficking in
women,
prostitution
The small
proportion of
women in positions
of responsibility in
companies
48%
43%
36%
30%
Male
46%
39%
36%
29%
Female
50%
46%
35%
32%
15-24
51%
38%
44%
27%
25-39
51%
41%
39%
31%
40-54
48%
45%
35%
32%
55 +
45%
45%
30%
31%
15-
52%
39%
33%
25%
16-19
49%
43%
36%
29%
20+
45%
45%
34%
34%
Still studying
50%
40%
41%
31%
EU27
Gender
Age
Education (End of)
16
B. Perception of the problem
A very large majority of Europeans believe that pay gaps are a
serious problem
17
B. Perception of the problem
In 25 Member States, pay gaps are perceived as a serious problem
by a majority of respondents
Q4. Personally, based on your knowledge of the pay gap between women and men, to what extent would you say
that this is a very serious, a fairly serious, a not really serious or not at all a serious problem?
18
B. Perception of the problem
The problem is seen as more serious by women and by older and
less educated respondents
Q4. Personally, based on your knowledge of the pay gap between women and men, to what extent would you say
that this is a very serious, a fairly serious, a not really serious or not at all a serious problem?
19
C. Reconciling family life and professional life
C. Reconciling family life and professional life
The pay gap issue is downplayed; the trade-off between work and childminding is a more divisive issue
Q5. To what extent do you totally agree, tend to agree, tend to disagree or totally disagree
with each of the following statements?
28%
69%
41%
55%
21
C. Reconciling family life and professional life
The proportion of Europeans who disagree with the statement is
significantly larger when the question pertains to the father
The split ballot technique: the sample was split into two equal parts, in a
totally arbitrary manner.
One group, split A, answered the question pertaining to the mother.
The other group, split B, answered the question pertaining to the father.
Q5. To what extent do you totally agree, tend to agree, tend to disagree or totally disagree
with each of the following statements?
41%
35%
55%
60%
* Split A only
** Split B only
22
C. Reconciling family life and professional life
The belief that the pay gap issue is downplayed is held by a majority in
all the Member States
Q5. To what extent do you totally agree, tend to agree, tend to disagree or totally disagree
with each of the following statements?
The issue of the pay gap between women and men gets downplayed
23
C. Reconciling family life and professional life
The belief that the parent with the lower salary should give up work is
held by a majority in 9 Member States
Q5. To what extent do you totally agree, tend to agree, tend to disagree or totally disagree
with each of the following statements?
In a family, it is the parent with the lower salary who should give up work to look
after the children
24
C. Reconciling family life and professional life
When the statement pertains to the mother, most respondents reject it in
17 Member States
Q5. To what extent do you totally agree, tend to agree, tend to disagree or totally disagree
with each of the following statements?
(SPLIT A ONLY) When child-minding costs are more or less equivalent to what the
mother earns, she should stop working to take care of the children
Pre-2004 Member States: 38%
Post-2004/2007 Member States: 52%
25
C. Reconciling family life and professional life
When the statement pertains to the father, most respondents reject it in
25 Member States
Q5. To what extent do you totally agree, tend to agree, tend to disagree or totally disagree
with each of the following statements?
(SPLIT B ONLY) When child-minding costs are more or less equivalent to what the
father earns, she should stop working to take care of the children
Pre-2004 Member States: 35%
Post-2004/2007 Member States: 34%
26
C. Reconciling family life and professional life
In 22 Member States, respondents would prefer the mother to give up
work, rather than the father
Q5. To what extent do you totally agree, tend to agree, tend to disagree or totally disagree
with each of the following statements?
When child-minding costs are more or less equivalent to what the mother*/the father**
earns, she should stop working to take care of the children
- Answer ‘Total agree’
27
C. Reconciling family life and professional life
There are significant differences depending on whether the question
pertains to the mother or the father
Q5. To what
extent
do do
you
agree,
agree,
tend
to disagree
oreach
totally
Q5 To
what extent
youtotally
totally agree,
tend totend
agree,to
tend
to disagree
or totally
disagree with
of thedisagree
with each offollowing
the following
statements?
statements?
(SPLIT A ONLY) When child-minding costs
are more or less equivalent to what the
mother earns, she should stop working to
take care of the children
(SPLIT B ONLY) When child-minding costs
are more or less equivalent to what the
father earns, he should stop working to
take care of the children
Total 'Agree'
Total 'Disagree'
Total 'Agree'
Total 'Disagree'
EU27
41%
55%
35%
60%
Countries before 2004
38%
58%
35%
59%
Countries post 2004/2007
52%
44%
34%
62%
Male
43%
53%
38%
57%
Female
40%
56%
32%
63%
15-24
33%
66%
28%
69%
25-39
37%
60%
38%
59%
40-54
40%
55%
38%
57%
55 +
49%
45%
32%
60%
15-
53%
41%
34%
57%
16-19
48%
48%
35%
60%
20+
36%
60%
35%
60%
Still studying
27%
72%
31%
66%
Gender
Age
Education (End of)
Problem of gender inequalities
Important
39%
57%
37%
58%
Not important
43%
53%
32%
63%
28
D. MEASURES TO COMBAT PAY GAPS
D.1 Level of decision making
Most respondents would prefer action to be taken at European
Union level
30
D.1 Level of decision making
In 21 Member States, the European Union level is seen as the most
appropriate to handle pay gaps
Q6. On average in the European Union, women earn 17.5% less than men for work of equal
value. Generally speaking, would you say that a solution to this issue needs to be found…
31
D.2 Preferred measures
Sanctions and incentives are rated equally
32
D.2 Preferred measures
Facilitating access for everyone and financial penalties are the
leading measures in a majority of Member States
Q7. In your opinion, which of the following measures would contribute the most to reducing
the pay gap between women and men in (OUR COUNTRY)? (ONE ANSWER ONLY)
Facilitating access for
Imposing financial penalties
women and men to any type
on companies that do not
of employment (for example,
respect gender equality (for
men in social work and
example, on pay and
women in scientific and IT
promotion)
professions)
EU27
27%
26%
Transparent pay scales in
companies
Encouraging and supporting
people who report cases of
unequal pay
24%
16%
CZ
38%
23%
25%
8%
DK
35%
10%
32%
13%
PL
34%
26%
14%
20%
ES
33%
29%
21%
13%
FI
33%
18%
31%
12%
DE
32%
16%
30%
13%
BG
31%
25%
25%
11%
IT
30%
29%
20%
15%
LV
30%
24%
23%
17%
LT
29%
17%
27%
19%
LU
29%
27%
22%
17%
AT
29%
19%
31%
13%
SE
28%
24%
22%
18%
33
D.2 Preferred measures
Facilitating access for
Imposing financial penalties
women and men to any type
on companies that do not
of employment (for example,
respect gender equality (for
men in social work and
example, on pay and
women in scientific and IT
promotion)
professions)
Transparent pay scales in
companies
Encouraging and supporting
people who report cases of
unequal pay
EU27
27%
26%
24%
16%
SI
27%
30%
22%
12%
SK
27%
26%
29%
13%
EL
26%
33%
17%
17%
CY
26%
22%
26%
17%
HU
26%
23%
29%
15%
BE
25%
30%
23%
18%
EE
22%
12%
32%
19%
FR
22%
34%
25%
14%
NL
19%
25%
37%
15%
PT
19%
27%
22%
24%
RO
19%
29%
23%
20%
IE
18%
31%
29%
18%
MT
18%
30%
19%
27%
UK
14%
32%
27%
20%
Highest percentage per country
Highest percentage by item
Lowest percentage per country
Lowest percentage by item
34
E. GENDER DIVERSITY IN THE WORKPLACE
E. Pay gaps in certains occupations
Pre-2004 Member States are more shocked by pay gaps
Q8. At the current time, there are pay gaps between certain “female” professions and
certain “male” professions, despite the fact that they require equivalent levels of training
and skills. Personally, would you say that these pay gaps are totally justified, fairly justified,
fairly unjustified or totally unjustified?
3%
3%
‘Totally unjustified’
Pre-2004 Member States:
62%
Post-2004/2007 Member
States: 46%
36
E. Pay gaps in certain occupations
National variations
Q8. At the current time, there are pay gaps between certain “female” professions and certain “male” professions, despite
the fact that they require equivalent levels of training and skills. Personally, would you say that these pay gaps are totally
justified, fairly justified, fairly unjustified or totally unjustified?
37
E. Recommended measures for combating gender underrepresentation
Improving working conditions, the leading measure cited
38
E. Recommended measures for combating gender underrepresentation
Improving working conditions is the leading measure in 24 countries
39
E. Recommended measures for combating gender underrepresentation
More attractive salaries is the leading measure in Latvia, Estonia and Hungary
40
F. CONCLUSION
F. Conclusion
 Gender inequality problems, in general, and pay gaps in particular, are
regarded as serious by a very large majority of Europeans
 To combat pay gaps, sanctions and incentives are rated equally
 In terms of the trade-off between work and child-minding (father/mother),
stereotypes persist
 The EU level remains the most appropriate scale for tackling these
problems
 To promote gender diversity in "male" and "female" occupations, the
improvement of working conditions is necessary in most Member
States
 Analysis by group of countries, by country and using socio-demographic
criteria demonstrates genuine complexity in the structure of opinions of
gender inequality are formed
42
Thank you for
your attention
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