First Continental Congress

1700= 300,000 (20,000 were black)
1775= 2.5 million (1/2 million were black)
Immigrants= 400,000
Forced immigrants same
Doubled every 25 years
Population growth changed population
– 1700= Colonists to English subjects ratio 1:20
– 1775= 1:3
• PA: Germans (Deutsch) = 6% 150,000
by 1775
• Fleeing religious restriction and
persecution, economic oppression and
• Adopted Lutheran and other protestant
– Street signs in German and English
– Clung to language and customs
• PA, NC, SC: Scots-Irish= 7% 175,000 by 1775
• Scotish Lowlanders experienced turbulence,
transplanted to N Ireland= no prosperity
• Scotish Presbetarians lashed with IrishCatholics: Resentment
• English Government imposed economic
restrictions on linens and woolen exports
• Pugnacious, individualistic
• Most land taken by Germans
– “great wagon road”
– Superb frontiersmen
• 5% were multiple nationalities
• French Hugenouts, Welsh, Dutch, Swededs,
Jews, Irish, Swiss, Scotish Highlanders
• Had little loyalty to the crown
• Largest non-English group= Africans-20% in
– Heavily concentrated in the South
• Paxton Boys 1764: protested Quaker
oligarchy’s lenient policy toward Natives
• Regulator Movement in NC: nasty insurrection
vs. England’s dominance of colonial affairs
• NE: Puritans (originally) least diverse
• Middle Colonies: later immigrants caused
• “What is this new American, this new man?”
“Praying towns”
Blurred boundaries
Shiny new equality and opportunity (except slavery)
No divided social class
• Of the 56 signers of the Declaration of
– 18 non-English, 8 not born in the colonies
• A new place for the footloose former indentured
• Indentured servants eventually become
• “Jayle birds”
• Oppressed slaves
• Fear of black rebellion
• Clergy
• Physicians
Fishing, whaling, shipbuilding
Land speculation
“Kill devil” rum
Fur trade
Iron forges
• Population Increase caused dependence
on British production
• Britain’s slow population growth caused
saturation point
• Transportation of goods along the road
1730’s and 1740’s
Exploded like fire in prairie grass
Liberal ideas of enlightened thinking
Age of Reason
Spiritual conversion, not necessary for
• Mainly Anglican and Congregational
• Anglican: official faiths in GA, NC, SC,
VA, MD, and part of NY
– Attempted elsewhere unsuccessfully
– Accepted more socially
– Clergy needed training
• Congregational: New England Colonies
(except RI)
• Crown supported churches through taxes
to the
American Revolution
Relationship with Britain
The French and Indian War
The Imperial Crisis and Resistance to Britain
Philosophy of the American Revolution
French & Indian War
What ways did the French and Indian War
alter the political, economic, and ideological
between Britain and its American colonies?
Broader Significance
Changed Forever
Balance of power in No. America
Relationship between Indians & Europeans
Relationships between Britain & No. American
History of AngloFrench conflicts
North America, the
British and the French
Vie for Power over
the Ohio River Valley
French Forts in Ohio
Valley stop colonists
from moving west.
Initially – alliances
with Native American
does tip the scales in
favor of the French
1756 War is Declared!
1754 - Clash
Ohio River Valley
Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne
G. Washington Delaware &
The Albany Congress
June 19 – July 11 – Daily meetings
Seven Colonies –
Albany Plan (1754)
Reps. from N.E., NY, PA (Franklin), MD
Albany Plan (Franklin)
Iroquois threatened switch sides
Colonial legislatures
Map of Crucial Battles
Key Events & Battles
Tensions over:
Impact of the
British and colonial attitudes
Organization &
Methods of fighting
Financing the War
Resulting British
attitudes toward
Resulting colonial
attitudes toward
British government
Effect on inter-colonial
Treaty of
Paris 1763
France transferred Canada
& all land east of
Mississippi River (Ohio
Valley) to Britain
France ceded New Orleans
& all claims west of
Mississippi River to Spain
(Spain cedes Florida to
France granted some of
Caribbean Islands & all
interests in India to Britain
Imperial Crisis
Results of the War
Greatly larger colonial
empire in No. America
Huge War Debt
Resentment toward
colonists (military &
financial role in war)
Reorganization of
American Empire
George III (ruled 17601820)
Proclamation of 1763
All lands west of the
Appalachians reserved
for Indians
British Reason:
• To stop conflict
between the Colonists
and the Indians and save
them $$$$
Colonial Reaction:
• Frustrated and thought
this was an attempt to
limit freedom
Discussion Question #1
Currency Act 1764
Colonist forbidden to make paper
money legal tender
British Reason:
• British merchants worried
about the loss of value of
Virginia’s paper money. All
taxes were to be paid in specie
Colonial Reaction:
• Specie would leave the colonies
to pay the troops (form of
taxes). Colonists would be left
without money. They resorted
to the barter system to bypass
the law
Discussion Question #9
Sugar Act 1764
Decreased duty on imported molasses in an
attempt to stop bribes; put new taxes on
indigo, sugar, coffee, wine and textiles.
Violators tried in admiralty courts not local
British Reason:
• Raise revenue “for defraying the expenses
of defending, protecting, and securing” Grenville
Colonial Reaction:
• FURIOUS! How dare they?
Discussion Question #7
Quartering Act 1765
Colonists must supply British troops with
living quarters, bedding, food, beer, cider
and rum.
British Reason:
• Most soldiers quartered in public buildings,
but when away from cities would need to be
in private homes.
Colonial Reaction:
• Most refused to comply
Discussion Question #10
Stamp Act 1765
Required stamp tax on all legal
documents, newspapers,
pamphlets, playing cards,
dice, and all other printed
Violators tried by Admiralty
British Reason:
• To raise revenue
Colonial Reaction:
• Colonists burned tax
collectors in effigy and
tarred and feathered them
Discussion Question #11
1770 Repeal of the Townshend
Lord North, first lord
of the Treasury
urges Parliament to
repeal all taxes
except tax on tea
Colonial Reaction:
• Colonists were still
• The tea tax was a
slap in the face
The Gaspee Incident (1772)
• The Gaspee was a British Royal Navy ship assigned to
customs duty.
• would regularly stop merchant ships to examine their
cargo looking for illegal goods
• The Gaspee ran aground in Narragansett Bay, near
• a group of men boarded the Gaspee and set the ship on
• No one came forward, and no one was ever charged for
the offence.
British Reaction:
• The British began to directly pay the governors' salary,
rather than being paid by the colonies.
Colonial Reaction:
• The colonies saw this as another step to put them under
British control, and to eliminate their freedoms.
The Boston Massacre (March 5,1770)
1770 Boston “Massacre”
March 5, 1770 a group of colonists were
taunting and throwing snowballs at British
soldiers. Shots were fired and 5 were killed, 6
Colonial Reaction:
• Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty fueled
the propaganda machine and proclaimed this a
“Massacre”. The colonists were minding their
own business and were fired upon. However
the truth is much different
Discussion Question #22
The Gaspee Incident (1772)
Providence, RI coast
of Correspondence
Purpose  warn neighboring colonies
about incidents with Br.
 broaden the resistance
Tea Act (1773)
8 British East India Co.:
 Monopoly on Br. tea
 Many members of
Parl. held shares.
 Permitted the Co. to
sell tea directly to
cols. without col.
(cheaper tea!)
8 North expected the
cols. to eagerly choose
the cheaper tea.
Boston Tea Party (1773)
1773 Boston Tea Party
•Colonists dressed as Indians, boarded
3 ships in Boston Harbor and dumped
the tea.
•This was the colonists reaction to the
order that ships could not leave until
the “cheap” tea was unloaded.
•Ever wonder why a country of
“Englishmen” would become a country
of coffee drinkers?
The Suffolk Resolves 1774
1. Denounced Intolerable Acts and ignored
punitive actions on Massachusetts after the
Boston Tea Party
2. Encouraged making their own militia
3. Encouraged the boycott of British goods
4. Delivered to the First Continental Congress by
Paul Revere
5. For the first time, ‘Americans must prepare for
war’, first time that three-letter word was used
6. The militancy in Massachusetts in arming citizensoldiers against the British is solidified
7. Massachusetts made an attempt at a militia,
which fought at Lexington and Concord
Hint: took up where the Virginia Resolves left off after the Stamp Act.
The Coercive or Intolerable
Acts (1774)
1. Port Bill
2. Government Act
3. New Quartering
Lord North
4. Administration of
Justice Act
The Coercive or Intolerable
Acts (1774)
Lord North
1. Boston harbor closed
until tea paid for
2. Massachusetts
constitution changed
increasing governor’s power
and banning town meetings
3. New Quartering Act – all
troops will be quartered in
4. Administration of
Justice Act – British
soldiers and government
officials will be tried in
The Quebec Act (1774)
America Secedes from the Empire
1774- First Continental Congress
1775- Lexington and Concord
May 10, 1775- Second Continental Congress
May, 1775- Ticonderoga
June 17, 1775- Battle of Bunker Hill
July 1775- Olive Branch Petition
August, 1775- King formally proclaims colonists
are in rebellion and skirmishes are considered
treasonous. Hessians are hired as mercenaries
• December 31, 1775- Assault on Quebec
• January, 1776- British set fire to Norfolk, VA
• March, 1776- British forced to evacuate Boston
Steps to Declaration of
• 1776- Common Sense
• June 7, 1776- Resolution made by
Richard Henry Lee
• July 4th, 1776- DoI Approved by Congress
First Continental Congress (1774)
55 delegates from 12 colonies
Agenda  How to
respond to the
Coercive Acts &
the Quebec Act?
1 vote per colony
The British Are Coming . . .
Paul Revere & William Dawes make their
midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of
approaching British soldiers.
The Shot Heard ’Round the World!
Lexington & Concord – April 18,1775
The Second Continental Congress
Olive Branch Petition
Thomas Paine: Common Sense
Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
Independence Hall
On the Eve of the
Revolution ?
Washington’s Headaches
Only 1/3 of the colonists were in
favor of a war for independence [the
other third were Loyalists, and the
final third were neutral].
State/colony loyalties.
Congress couldn’t tax to raise money
for the Continental
Poor training [until
the arrival of
Baron von Steuben.
Military Strategies
The Americans
Attrition [the
Brits had a long
supply line].
Guerilla tactics
[fight an
insurgent war 
you don’t have
to win a battle,
just wear the
British down]
Make an
alliance with
one of Britain’s
The British
Break the
colonies in half
by getting
between the
No. & the So.
Blockade the
ports to prevent
the flow of
goods and
supplies from an
“Divide and
Conquer”  use
the Loyalists.
Phase I: The Northern Campaign
Bunker Hill (June, 1775)
The British suffered over 40% casualties.
Phase II:
New York City in Flames
“Turning Point”
of the War?
A modern-day re-enactment
Phase III: The Southern
Strategy [1780-1781]
Britain’s “Southern Strategy”
Britain thought that there were more
Loyalists in the South.
Southern resources were more
valuable/worth preserving.
The British win a number of small
victories, but cannot pacify the
countryside [similar to U. S. failures
in Vietnam!]
Good US General:
Nathanial Greene
The Battle of Yorktown (1781)
Count de
De Grasse
Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown:
“The World Turned Upside Down!”
Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
North America After the
Treaty of Paris, 1783
• The Revolutionary War is
• Now the question is how to
rule the country?
• The state disagree about
what kind of government
they want
• The framers disagree about
what kind of government
they want
• People are becoming
frustrated and rebelling
against current government
Enter the Anti-Federalists
At the Constitutional
Convention …
• Some framers thought the Constitution gave the
government too much power
• They argued that states should have more power because
they were closer to the people…what could a national
government possibly know about state and city problems?
• Also, there was no Bill of Rights – nothing that said what
people can and cannot do
• Those opposed set out to campaign against the
Constitution, arguing that it would create a government
with so much power, it would just be like having a king
Enter the Federalists
At the Constitutional
Convention …
• The Federalists supported the Constitution as it was. After all,
it was decided upon by representatives from each state
• The Constitution had a strong sense of CHECKS AND
BALANCES, or a balance of power between the three
branches of the national government and the local and state
• The Federalists wrote the “Federalist Papers” to encourage
states to approve the Constitution
Enter the “fight”
The Constitution needed 9 of 13 states to
approve it in order for it to become law
Both sides (the Federalists and the AntiFederalists) tried to convince people their
side was correct
After the great debate, the states finally
ratified the Constitution …
Only IF ….
was included.
didn’t think it was really
necessary …
insisted on the Bill of Rights
 Federalists agreed to add the Bill of Rights – keeping
both sides happy
 The rights would be added as amendments … meaning
they were seen as “official changes, corrections, or
 The Bill of Rights were based upon the constitutions
developed by the states
 There were a total of ten amendments added .. And they
became known as :
“The Bill of Rights”
1. Which side had
the best argument
… the Federalists
or the AntiFederalists?
2. Each side present
your arguments
3. Does the
Constitution really
need a Bill of