Apparel Construction Skills

Apparel Construction Skills
Apparel Development 2
Objective 3.02
Standard Sewing Machine
Used For:
Regular stitching
Machine basting
Reinforcement stitching
A Specialized type of sewing machine that can
stitch, trim, and finish all in one
simple step.
Sometimes called “Overlock” or
“flatlock” ** machine
Can be used to decorate an edge
Serging a Satin Pillow Sham?
No adjustments necessary 
Serging Lightweight Fabrics?
Decrease the pressure regulator**
(Differential feed)
Making a tissue holder**
Embroidery Machine
Used for:
Special Designs
Problems and Solutions
Skipped Stitches
Old dull needle – replace it
Wrong size needle
Tension too tight
Tension Problems:
Too loose: top thread shows through
the bottom of the fabric
Too tight: bottom thread shows on the
Heavier the thread – looser the
To balance the bottom and bottom
stitches, adjust the tension whenever
you change fabrics**
Stitch Length
Basting, Standard, Re-inforced
Heavy fabric** feeding unevenly?
Increase the stitch length
Machine Needles
Hold the upper thread on the
sewing machine
many types and sizes
replace when it becomes dull,
bent, or rough
Larger the number, larger the
Machine Needles
**Change needle based on type of
**Ball point needle – sharp enough for
woven fabric, rounded for knits
Presser Feet
Holds fabric against the feed dogs
which moves the fabric under needle
Many different types
Standard Presser Foot
Used for basic sewing
Zipper Foot
Used for applying zippers and sewing
close to bulky edges
Automatic Button Hole Foot
Place button in slot
Same size button
hole each time
Always practice
Don’t forget –
please re-set
Follow instruction
Teflon Foot / Walking Foot
**Allows leather
to feed smoothly
while sewing
Glides over
Blind Hem Foot
An invisible
machine worked
**appropriate for
the top finished
edge of a canvas
Used for JROTC
Follow instruction
Clear Presser Foot – “B”
Used for making a 4-step button hole
Used for sewing in sew-thru buttons
Feed Pressure Regulator
Adjusts the amount of pressure of the
presser foot
On the left side of our machine
Thick fabric vs. light fabric (1)
Set at 3 for regular sewing
Choose the right one for the job
Standard = 10-12 stitches per inch
Basting (long stitch) = 6 per inch
Reinforced (short + strong) = 15-20
Sewing Corners
At the corner, leave needle in fabric,
raise presser foot
Spin the fabric, lower presser foot
Corner – can take a few diagonal
Reinforcing – additional stitches on both
sides of corner
Sewing Curves
Stitch slowly, and even speed
If adjusting fabric, leave needle down
Dressmaker Shears
•allows fabric to lie flat on
the table as you cut.
• Blades are usually 7 to 8
inches in length.
• Also know as Bent-handled
• These scissors
have small round
• Blades are 4 to 6
inches in length (the
blades are
different in
• Use the to trim
seams, clip curves,
and cut into
Pinking Shears
• With these shears,
you can finish a seam
edge or other raw edge
on firmly woven fabric.
• The zigzag design
helps to prevent
Embroidery Scissors
• 3 to 4 inches in
length, with very
pointed blades.
• Use for cutting
buttonholes &
Trimming close to
the embroidery
• Looks like a
pizza cutter.
• Can make
straight clean
cuts through
multiple layers of
fabric. Such as a
• Cutter must be
used with a mat.
Thread Clipper (snips)
• This tool has
blades for
clipping thread
ends or
•Can remove stitches with
the blades on one end of
this pen-shaped gadget.
• Be careful not to cut the
Electric Straight Knife Cutting
• Are
manipulated by
hand along
outlines of the
pattern pieces of
the marker.
• Can cut 100
layers of fabric
at a time.
• A device that
generates an
powerful beam
of light.
• Cut one
garment a piece
at a time.
• They’re
because they
fast and
Laser Cutter examples
Pressing: Equipment
Press Cloth- A press cloth is a layer
of fabric placed between
the fabric and the iron to
protect the fabric from
scorching or shining.
Tailor’s Ham- is convenient for
shaping the fabric when
making dressmaker
suits or coat.
Sleeve Board- A sleeve
board is a small ironing board that is
narrow enough to fit into a sleeve.
Seam Roll- A seam roll is a
two-sided cylinder, one side covered with
wool and the other with cotton.
For ironing narrow areas
Point Presser and Pounding
Block- **narrow wooden surface
with triangle shaped end. For pressing
narrow, hard to reach seams of collars;
belts; cuffs; corners; points, etc. A
clapper/pounding block is used to
flatten a seam, pleat, dart, lapel,
buttonhole, etc.
Needle Board- A board that
holds needles in a loom. Used for
pressing pile fabrics (use with a press
Ironing Board- A long, narrow
padded board, often with
collapsible supporting legs, used
as a working surface for ironing.
Steam Iron- A metal appliance with a
handle and a weighted
flat bottom, used when
heated to press
wrinkles from fabric.
*Make sure to keep iron clean!
Pressing: Techniques
Specialized Fabrics- When pressing pile
fabrics, press on the wrong side of the
fabric, so the iron’s impression will not
show on the fabric.
Placing these fabrics right side down on a
needle board will help preserve texture.
Use of Pressing Equipment
The iron is the most important
pressing tool.
Avoid pressing over pins, sippers,
and other metal objects that will
scratch the bottom of the iron.
Types of Seams
Plain seams should be serged and
trimmed, or stitched with a seam
allowance of 5/8 of an inch.
Perfect for beginner
projects from pillows
to pants.
Types of Seams
A Flat-felled seam is self-enclosed and
requires no additional seam finishing
Used where durability is
needed or a tailored
appearance is desired.
Good for sewing denim
Types of Seams
Welt seams give the garment a tailored
look. Used on corduroy **
They can be used as a decorative accent.
Types of Seams
A Double-Stitched is mostly used for
sheer fabrics or lightweight knits.
Used on things
such as sheer
fabrics and
lightweight knits.
A French seam is a durable self enclosed
seam that is used to conceal seam allowances.
Used to prevent raveling on lightweight
fabric such as satin and cotton batiste. ***
Types of Seams
The Lapped seam is a strong smooth seam that
should lie perfectly flat. It gets its strength
because its sewn with two rows of stitching.
Used on fabrics such as leather or fleece.
Types of Seams
A bound seam has both of the raw edges
enclosed in a strip of fabric or double
fold bias tape.
Used mostly on lightweight fabrics such
as silk or chiffon.
Standards for Seams
The standard seam allowance when sewing at home
is 5/8 of an inch.
The standard seam allowance for Industrial sewing
is ¼ of an inch.
Seam Finishes
To prevent fraying.
Looks professional,
not home-sewn
Serged Seam
 Sergers stitch
seams, trim off
seam allowances,
and finish edges all
in one step.
 Can be used on the
seam of a canvas
window treatment
Clean Finish “aka” Turned and Stitched
A clean finish is turned
under 1/8 to ¼ of the raw
edge of fabric and then
stitched close to the
folded edge.
If you want a smooth
edge on the inside of
the garment you would
do a clean finish.
Pinked Finish
Most firmly woven
fabrics can be
trimmed with
pinking shears.
Pinking the fabric
doesn’t completely
prevent raveling.
Pinking shears give
an attractive edge.
For more
protection, stitch
¼ inch from
each edge after
Bound Finish
Appropriate fabrics
are medium/medium
heavy and heavyweight
woven fabrics.
A bound finish is
used frequently
on unlined coats
and jackets. Also
in dresses and
other items that
have a tendency
to ravel.
Zigzag Finish
This finish is used on a
plain seam on woven
This finish is used on
medium- to
heavyweight fabrics
such as upholstery **.
Use a special presser
Piped/Corded Finish
Piping is a narrow
band of fabric
stitched into the
seam to accent the
seam line or outer
edge of a garment
or a pillow **.
Use a zipper foot
to get close to the
•Mark it
•Turn it up
•Finish your edge
•Sew in place
•By machine or by
Machine Hems
•Rolled (serger or
•Shirt Tail
Rolled Hem
Use special foot
Set up serger
Blind Hem
**Turn up ¼”
then 1 ½” for a
skirt hem
Use for an
invisible hem in
a valance **
Special presser
Top Stitched Hem
Turn it 2 times,
then stitch
Bound Hem
Decorates and finishes the edge
Shirt Tail Hem - ** for medium or heavy
weight fabrics that ravel a great deal
The curved bottom
hem of a shirthigher on the side
hip area (for ease
of movement)
dipping low in the
front and back (so
that the shirt will
stay tucked into
Hand Sewn Blind Hem
Very small stitches
on the right side of
Space evenly
about 1/2” apart
Don’t pull tight
Loose so don’t
Hand Slip Stitch
Use with a turned and stitched hem or
a bias binding hem
Use to close holes in linings or stuffed
Catch Stitch
Used for stretchy
fabric hems
Strong and flexible
Everything you need
to finish your project
other than the fabric
and pattern.
Rayon Thread
A soft thread, available
in great colors, and
suitable for all forms of
machine embroidery.
It holds up well with
high-speed stitching
without breaking or
Metallic Thread
Used for decoration.
Adds luminous
accents to machine
**need to use a
special needle
Fusible Thread
Used for fuse
basting, quilt
bindings, appliqué
and more. Sew into
your fabric, iron, and
set your hem or
appliqué in place.
Invisible Thread
Also known as
monofilament thread.
Very lightweight thread
used on drapery hems
on shear or light
Can also be used on a
serger on the looper
Use for sewing on
scout patches
Crochet Thread
Made from
cotton for
crochet items.
May be
stiffened with
Ribbon Thread
Embroidery is done
with ribbon thread,
rather than standard
six-thread string.
Silk ribbon or a silk
and organza blend
ribbon are commonly
used for this type of
Can also be used in
serger loopers
•All purpose thread that can be
used for sewing most fabrics
•It is strong and flexible, it
shrinks less than most other
•The thread stretches slightly,
it is recommended for knits
and stretch fabrics
•Used for serging ***
•It Is great for machine quilting, hand quilting, or
decorative stitching
Cotton covered polyester thread
•Cotton covered polyester thread is good for for
hand and machine sewing on all natural fabrics,
synthetics, woven and knits
• It is strong and durable.
•This thread can be used in your sewing
machine or by hand
•It is usually used for home décor projects
Button Craft
•Has great elasticity and strength
•It can be permanently stretched in sewing, and
is good for silks and wools
•Button whole twist is a strong, lustrous silk
about three times the diameter of normal sewing
silk, and can be used for sewing buttons with
various decorative effects
Sizing Patterns
In order to determine what your pattern size is you
must take your body measurements.
After you have figured your figure type the next step is
to find your pattern size. Check your measurements and
line them up with what’s on the chart located at the
back of the patter envelope.
Pinning Patterns
Pin the grain line first, if you don’t pin the grain line correctly
your finished garment will not hang correctly.
Pin perpendicular to the bold line.
Pinning Continued
Silk pins are the best pins to use in order to prevent ripping the
pattern pieces.
Place pins diagonally in corners.
Cutting Out Patterns
Use long strokes with your scissors.
Cut on the bold line.
Cut out the required number called for by the
Cutting Out Patterns Continued.
Cut all your notches away from the
seam, and
Make required marks to fabric before
removing your pattern piece.
•Transfer all your marks to the
WRONG side of the fabric before
removing pattern piece.
• Don’t iron over your markings, marks
may become permanent.
•You may use tailor’s chalk, a marking
pen, or tracing wheel and tracing
**choose based on the
appearance of the product
and your material
and sizes
•Choose the
right one for the
job (look at the
back of the
envelope )
Sew Through- have 2-4 holes on the
face of the button for attaching with
Shank- is a loop on the back of the
button that allows the button to lay
hand / Machine stitched
Hook and Loop Tape: Velcro
Two Nylon Strips,
one with tiny loops
and the other with a
looped pile.
Use when you
don’t want the
fastener to show
such as on a hard
to match fabric
Hook side goes on
the bag, loop side
on the flap
Hook & Eye / Bar
They are used on edges that just meet
like a neck or collar line. Also they
can be used at the top of a zipper for
further support.
•Many sizes.
•hold over lapping edges with
a minimum of strain.
•Larger sizes are good for
heavy duty use.
•Snaps pre-attached to fabric
tapes are ideal for
sportswear and children’s
wear such as a terry cloth
Choose Interfacing
based on your
fabric type
Heavy fabric =
heavy interfacing
Light fabric = light
Fusible or sew-in
Gives stability