Rat Maze - FTHS Wiki

Explain Everything Review Topics:
• Group 1: Ch 1 = approaches to the science of psychology (17-20)
• Group 2: Ch 2 = types of research methods in psychology (34-44…pick three
Group 3: Ch 3 = nervous system (61-66)
Group 4: Ch 3 = peripheral and central nervous systems (67-71)
Group 5: Ch 3 = endocrine and immune system (99-103)
Group 6: Ch 4 = vision (118-132…pick a few key parts)
Group 7: Ch 4 = chemical senses (133-138)
Group 8: Ch 5 = organizing the perceptual world (163-173…pick a few key
Group 9: Ch 7 = storing new memories (245-251)
Group 10: Ch 7 = retrieving memories (252-257)
Group 11: Ch 8 = language (309-316)
Group 12: Ch 12 = infancy and childhood cognitive development (464-473)
Group 13: Ch 12 = adolescence (494-502)
Learning: Biological & Cognitive
Biological Influence on Learning
• Can limit conditioning
• Can speed up conditioning
Morning sickness during pregnancy +
Cabo Beach Grill = ????
Taste Aversions: Why?
John Garcia’s Research (1950s)
• irradiating rats to see its effect on their
• rats didn't want to eat the things they'd been
fed shortly before being irradiated
• theorized that this was because they were
getting nauseous from the radiation
• radiated rats were conditioned to link the taste
of sweetened water with nausea and avoided
it after only ONE trial
• When there is a natural aversive (bad!) stimulus,
conditioning is immediate!
• Evolutionary advantage: prevents us from eating something
twice that might be toxic.
Keller and Marian Breland
• trained raccoons to put coins in a piggy bank
• rewarded with food for successful deposits
• worked with single coins, but when the
researchers gave a raccoon more than one
coin, the raccoon would sit and rub the coins
together instead
• by associating the coins with food, the
raccoons' natural instinct to 'wash' food by
rubbing it together was activated
• Classical conditioning was inhibited by this
natural biological response
Summary: Role of Biology in Learning
• Learning is adaptive = increases
ability to survive
• Biological influence can increase
or limit conditioning
• Animals can be trained as long as it
doesn't override their instinctive
• Once we've developed distaste for
something we associate with getting
sick, it's hard to get over it.
Cognitive Learning
• Emphasizes the role of mental
processes such as rule
formation and strategies for
goal attainment
• There are several examples of
cognitive learning:
• http://education-
Insight Learning
• Insight = acute observation
and deduction
Insight Learning as
described by Wolfgang
Kohler is a sudden
awareness of the solution
to a problem
Kohler studied chimps
Sultan the Chimp
Latent Learning
• As described by E. C. Tolman, is
learning in the absence of
apparent reward
• Not demonstrated at the time the
learning takes place
Observational Learning
• Albert Bandura described this as
learning by watching another
individual and modeling the
learned task
• Potential to be positive or negative
Learned Helplessness
• Martin Seligman
• a decrease in responding that occurs
after exposure to uncontrollable
aversive events
• A tendency to give up
Crash course review of Behavior &
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=128Ts5r9NRE
3-Way Match Activity
• Instructions for students:
• Those with a card with a TERM on it, move to make a large circle
around the room.
• TERM card holders will name the term on their card while all other
students listen.
• TERM cardholders will remain in their position around the room
and the other card holders will attempt a three-way match to
include the term, the definition, and a visual representation.
• Groups discuss and validate their 3-way match to ensure accuracy
• Groups present their term, the definition, and why the visual is part
of this three way match.
• Memory TED Talk: To help you prep for exams!