Nanotechnology In Aerospace Applications

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NANOTECHNOLOGY IN
AEROSPACE
APPLICATIONS
“The problems of chemistry and biology can be greatly
helped if our ability to see what we are doing, and to do
things on an atomic level, is ultimately developed--a development which I think cannot be avoided.”
–Richard P. Feynman
Team S5
Pradip Rijal, Jason Savatsky,
Trevor Seidel, and Laura Young
THE FOCUS
NASA
 Commercial
 Military

http://corvusart.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/fishbowl2.jpg
WHAT DOES THE INDUSTRY WANT?

Materials that are:
Lighter
 Stronger
 More Durable
 Resistant to Extreme
Conditions


Also interested in
materials that have
unique properties
http://www.washingtonstatewire.com/admin/contentmanager/photos/191409072
2%20Boeing%20787.jpg
THE TECHNOLOGIES
Improved Electronics
 Advanced Composites
 Improved Paints and
Sealants
 Carbon Nanotubes

http://static.commentcamarche.net/en.kioskea.net/faq/images/372-phenom-x4processors-01-s-.png
OUR ROLE
Advanced material
research
 Electronics
 Production

http://www.europavalve.com/images/chemical-plant.jpg
AEROSPACE NANOTECHNOLOGY: NASA

High level of funding

Four Areas of Focus
Materials
 Electronics and Data
Processing
 Sensors and
Components
 Basic Research

http://www.azonano.com/details.asp?ArticleID=1174
NASA: COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
Carbon Nanotube SPM Tips
Moore’s Law
 Manipulate molecules
with sub-angstrom
accuracy
 Engrave patterns on
silicon surface
 Application to
electronics

http://nanotechnologytoday.blogspo
t.com/2007_09_01_archive.html
NASA: AEROSPACE TRANSPORTATION
Launch Vehicles



Diamondoid
material
Price of
diamondoid
vehicles compared
to that of
titanium vehicles
Carbon
nanotubes have a
Young’s modulus
comparable to
diamond
http://pix.motivatedphotos.com/2009/5/15/633780049382659605-USSenterprise.jpg
NASA: AEROSPACE TRANSPORTATION
Space Elevator





http://www.cmp.caltech.edu/refael/league/Space_elevator2.jpg
Cable from Earth to
space
Strength of cable
must be tapered
Taper factor of steel
and diamond
Material must be
stronger than current
technology provides
Safety is still an
issue
NASA: ACTIVE MATERIALS
The smallest feature
size in production
systems: 250 nm
 Nanotubes are
smaller
 Human tissue as an
active material

http://www.ndriresource.org/SiteData/images/20042C/9d
57dcc0be146cf6680a7085b8c25615/20042C.jpg
NASA NANOTECHNOLOGY
VIDEO
http://www.azonano.com/nanotechnology-videodetails.asp?VidID=143
INDUSTRIAL/COMMERCIAL
APPLICATIONS
Advanced Composites
Materials
 Aerospace Paint
 Deicing Materials

http://www.backpackersguide.co.uk/images/plane-travel.jpg
ADVANCED COMPOSITES MATERIALS



Composites materials are
combinations of two or
more organic or inorganic
components
Consist of high strength
nano fibers embedded in a
matrix
Materials are:
Matrix material: material
that holds everything
together.
e g . epoxy, bismaleimide,
or polyimide.
o Fibers: serve as a
reinforcement, embedded
in the matrix.
e g. glass fiber, boron
fiber, carbon fiber
Schematic section of a helicopter rotor blade
o
http://authors.library.caltech.edu/5456/1/hrst.mit.edu/hrs/materials/public/composites/Compo
sites_rotor.gif
ADVANCED COMPOSITES MATERIALS






Nano Fibers are laid out in
tape or fabric form
put in a mold under heat
and pressure.
The resin matrix flows
over nano fibers
Heat is remover and it
solidifies.
It can be formed into
various shapes. In some
cases,
the fibers are wound
tightly to increase
strength.
http://people.sabanciuniv.edu/~yusufm/research/composite.jpg
ADVANCED COMPOSITES MATERIALS







Traditionally used:
Aluminum metal
Aluminum made planes
heavier, consume more fuel
Fiberglass was first used in
the Boeing 707 passenger jet
in the 1950s, only 2% of the
structure.
Now , about one-third of the
structure of the commercial
planes uses composites
Composites are stronger
Composites makes aircrafts
lighter :~ 20% lighter
Fuel efficient
http://oea.larc.nasa.gov/PAIS/Concept2Reality/graphics/fig060.jpg
AEROSPACE PAINT AND SEALANT


Sealants to seal the
structures like fuel tanks,
aerodynamic sealing, and
windshield installation
Based on nanotechnology



e. g. PRC® and Pro-Seal™
PPG Aerospace chromate-free
de-paint/repaint process
includes a epoxy primer
Based on nanotechnology




Environment friendly
Better adhesion
Corrosion resistant
e. g. DeSoto® Aerospace Coatings
http://www.aerospace-technology.com/contractors/paints/ppgaerospace/ppg-aerospace3.html
DEICING
•When a plane is in the air,
icing can occur
•plane’s performance suffers
and disasters can occur.
•Currently used techniques:
•use bleed air: heating the
surface with engine bleed
air
•mechanical boot: breaking
the bond between surface
and ice
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8504734.stm
• Issues:
•Too complex,
•too heavy
•draws too much power to
be effective
http://www.nano.org.uk/news/370/
DEICING

Solution by scientists at Battelle, U. K. : deicing
fluid
is based on nano technology
 weighs 1/100th of current ice protection systems
 uses simple painting methods
 can be applied to a variety of curved surfaces without
needing a custom heater pad design.


How?
sprayed on planes prior to flight.
 carbon nanotube coating is applied to surfaces then
energize that coating using the plane’s on-board
electrical system.
 causes the nanotube coating to heat up, thus
preventing ice from forming.

MILITARY APPLICATIONS



http://base1.googlehosted.com/base_media?q=http://www.capitolsu
pply.com/ImageServer.ashx%3Ft%3Dproduct%26h%3D200%26w%
3D200%26imageid%3DCS8516813&size=20&dhm=fdfe56f1&hl=en

Satellites weighing 15 tons or
more derive 1/3 of their weight
from copper harnesses
Boeing 747 uses up to 135 of
copper wire that can weight more
than 4000 pounds
Copper wires also oxidize and
corrode, are susceptible to
vibration fatigue, and create
premature electronics failures due
to overheating conditions.
Will replace copper wiring on
aerospace systems with carbon
nanotube sheets
MILITARY APPLICATIONS
Conductive coating to
be used on jet fighter
canopies - clear
bubbles that cover
planes' cockpits - for
the US air force
 Coating will improve
electromagnetic
shielding and
electrostatic discharge
to prevent electronic
disruption

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c9/F16_June_2008.jpg/800px-F-16_June_2008.jpg
REFERENCES
http://www.azonano.com/details.asp?ArticleID=11
74#_The_Main_Nanotechnology_Sectors%20tha
http://alglobus.net/NASAwork/papers/nano1997/ap
plications/
Group S5
Nanotechnology and Aerospace
Applications
Rebuttal
S5 Rebuttal of Presentation 2
• S5 feels that for the most part, the criticism was accurate and
just. Laura should have tried to memorize the material to a
greater extent and not read from notes as much. Pradip had
extensive writing on his slides, as the audience reviewed on.
Jason could have put more effort into his slides and
rehearsed his part. More research would have been good
too. One of the reviews commented on the irrelevance of
the futuristic things that NASA is working on as they are too
far in the future, however, these are big projects and
definitely worth focusing on now. I think that we should have
discussed the space elevator—it shows that NASA is aimed
toward highly technological advances and is focused on
succeeding in their goals.
Presentation:
Nanotechnology and Aerospace Applications
By Group 5

Good presentation skills
◦ Seemed knowledgeable
◦ Good pace
◦ Three of the presenters showed good preparation
skills, except last presenter.

Slides had good format
◦ Good graphics


Presenters answered questions with further
information than what was presented
Enough presentation was presented by the
first presenters to make up for lack of
information by the fourth presenter.

Jason must improve speaking skills
◦ Seemed in a hurry to finish presentation
◦ Read straight from slides


Laura was able to get the audience’s
attention; however, less reading from notes
would have increased interaction with
audience.
One of the slides from composite material section
seemed overcrowded as well as the last two slides
o
Design of the slides could have been more creative.
Group S2’s Review of S5 Second
Presentation
Micheal Jones
Rachel Houk
Chris Heflin
Positive Aspects
• Appearance of the Slides
– The layout was professional
– Figures were relevant to the concepts being
described and helped with understanding
– Text to figure ratio was acceptable
• Oral Presentation
– For the most part, the presenters seemed
prepared with the use of minimal filler words and
good posture and body language
Room for Improvement
• Consistency
– The formatting and aesthetics of a few slides were inconsistent,
it seemed as though one group member through his slides in
last minute without formatting with the rest of the group
– Other than that, some of the slides that were consistent format
wise had too much text with respect to the other slides and
seemed out of place
• Preparation
– The group as a whole seemed well prepared except for the last
presenter. He seemed as though this was the first time he was
actually going over his material. Although this is not the rest of
the groups responsibility, it would be more professional if he
would have pulled his own weight in the presentation.
By S3:
James Kancewick
Michael Koetting
Bradford Lamb
Positives
 Slides were well-made and contained a nice text-to-
image ratio.
 Speaking was fairly good through the first three
presenters.
 Contained a lot of good technical information
regarding the applications, especially in regard to the
“Advanced Composite Materials” slides.
Areas for Improvement
 The final presenter really needs to practice more. He seemed
very nervous and unsure of himself. His entire section was very
short and was read completely off the slides, with his speaking
adding nothing to the presentation. Rehearsal would have
greatly helped!
 Use of the video by NASA was somewhat distracting. The
information from the video should have just been incorporated
into your slides, with you presenting the information. This
would have reinforced your position as the “experts” on the topic,
rather than deferring to outside expertise.
 Occasional format discrepancies between slides (e.g. different
bullets, inconsistent capitalization, etc.)
 Speakers seemed to be lacking knowledge of the material during
the Q/A section, especially regarding the space elevator.
Danielle Miller
Joshua Moreno
Scott Marwil
Good Things
 Slides looked very professional.
 Pictures were vibrant and great attention grabbers.
 Laura and Trevor were very strong presenters, they did
a great job of keeping the attention of the audience
and delivering their message.
 Prapid was a good presenter, but was soft spoken. Just
needed to speak up and show more energy.
Places for Improvement
 Jason was very nervous. Said “uh” and “um” a lot. He
did not appear to be well rehearsed- giant pause at the
beginning. His section was less developed than other
sections of the presentation. All these things can be
easily fixed by rehearsing and putting more time into
preparation.
 Laura read from notes. Try to have more memorized,
but it was not that distracting.
Places for Improvement
 Use consistent and parallel structure in bulleted lists.
Punctuation should be consistent throughout slide
(have all statements start with a capital letter & use
clauses OR complete sentences).
 Some slides had too many words on them. This takes
the attention away from your main point you are trying
to get across.
S6
CHEN 481
2nd Presentation by S5 Review
John Baumhardt
Daniel Arnold
Michael Trevathan
Michael Tran
Presentation Review
• Slide layout was agreeable and pleasant to look at. The
text on the slides seemed to be occasionally light on
content in the presentation.
• The presentation was detailed and well thought out.
• The final comment holds true throughout both of the
presentations: the final presenter was sub-par when
compared with the rest of the group. Everybody has
difficulties when it comes to presentations, but practice
serves to eliminate these difficulties. The fact that there
was no improvement between the presentations means
that no effort has been made to improve, and this is
unfair to the rest of your group.
Critique of Information
• The applications of nanotechnology in aerospace were
very interesting. Some of the applications appear to be
so far in the future that they are not worth mentioning,
such as the space elevator.
• Would have liked to see an analysis for the time estimate
to implement the carbon nano-tubes in the replacing
copper wires.
• Since there are other advancing aerospace programs,
we would have liked to know about any other
applications that these programs are exploring. We
would like to know if these programs are progressing in
this research more rapidly then NASA.
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