Neutrinos

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A. Yu. Smirnov
Max-Planck Institute
for Nuclear Physics,
Heidelberg, Germany
Padova, October 28, 2015
October 6, 2015
Takaaki Kajita
Super-Kamiokande Collaboration
University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan
Arthur B. McDonald
SNO Collaboration
Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada
“ for the discovery of neutrino oscillations,
which shows that neutrinos have mass”
m – like events:
Length of trajectory
L = DEarth cos qz
zenith angle
Deficit of the m – like events
Determines mixing angle q23
dotted- decoherence,
dashed- neutrino decay
No oscillation
effect
The first
oscillation
minimum determines
Dm322
Averaged
oscillations
Dm322 = 2.5x10-3 eV2
sin2q23 = 0.45 – 0.55
Experiments
SuperKamiokande: update, attempts of nu-barnu
separation, CP phase, MO, at about 1s level
Ice Cube: measurements of nm ne fluxes at high
(up to PeV) energies
1410.1749
DeepCore: observation of oscillations,
observation of cascades
ANTARES: oscillations
Fluxes
computations
Update, various improvements
Fluxes and flavor ratios
for E = 0.1 TeV – 10 PeV
M. Honda et al,
1502.03916
T. S. Sinegovskaya
et al, 1407.3591
New contribution to conventional flux T. Gaisser,
Crucial
for future
Charm production, new using
LHC and RHIC data
1409.4924
A. Bhattacharya
et al, 1502.01076
Deviation from maximal:
symmetry or no symmetry,
Quadrant
Atmospheric nm disappearance,
3 years of data
IceCube Collaboration
(M.G. Aartsen et al.).
arXiv:1410.7227 [hep-ex] |
comparable in precision with
present accelerator experiments
Even better in future
K. Clark
sin2 q32, fit = 0.50
sin2 q32, true = 0.42
ne -> nm , nt transformations
CC:
ne + d  e + p + p
NC:
n+d n+n+p
ES:
n + en+e
ne - survival probability
PSNO
FCC
= F = 0.34
NC
Survival probability
CC events: no substantial
spectrum distortion nearly
constant suppression
nm - nt vacuum oscillations
P(nm - nm) = 1 - sin22q sin2f
the phase
Dm2 L
f=
2E
Dm2 = m32 – m12
Phase change
ne  nm , nt adiabatic conversion
PSNO = sin2q + (corrections)
0.34
0.31
Non-oscillatory
conversion
vacuum
mixing angle
Mixing in matter changes
Non-oscillatory transition probability
Extreme case of the adiabatic conversion
Propagation in medium
with varying density
Complete expression for 2n mixing
PSNO = sin2q + cos2q cos2qm0 + freg
non-oscillatory
transition
0.31
qm0
contribution from
oscillations in the Sun
Contribution from
oscillations in the Earth
0.015
0.015
- mixing angle in matter in initial state
In three neutrino case:
PSNO(3) = c132 (c130)2 PSNO + s132 (s130)2
c13 = cos q13 , etc.
Oscillations
survival probability
Adiabatic conversion
distance
distance
Spin of electron
in magnetic field
Oscillations
Adiabaticitic conversion
ne
nm
SNO: established neutrino flavor transformations
Origin?
LOW MSW solution
has selected unique solution of the solar
neutrino problem (in assumption of CPT)
has shown that non-zero neutrino mass
is behind SNO result
Kamioka Liquid Anti Neutrino Detector
53 reactors <L> ~ 180 km
ne + p  e+ + n
1000 ton of mineral oil
D = 18 m, 1879 PMT
Observe vacuum oscillations of ne
consistent with parameters of
the LMA MSW solution
Oscillations and adiabatic conversion test
the dispersion relations and not neutrinos mass
pi =
Ei2
–
mi2
nL
x
m
nR
x
m
nL
In oscillations: no change of chirality, so e.g. V, A interaction
with medium can reproduce effect of mass.
It is consistency of results of many experiments in wide
energy ranges and different environment: vacuum, matter
with different density profiles that makes explanation of
data without mass almost impossible.
Kinematical methods distortion of the beta decay
spectrum near end point - KATRIN
Neutrinoless Double beta decay
Experiments
BOREXINO: pp-flux in agreement with LMA
SuperK:
3s D-N asymmetry due to Earth matter effect
Fluxes:
Beyond 3n
paradigm
CNO neutrinos – still to measure.
Higher accuracy of the pp-flux measurements is important
Still open issue: surface chemical abundance –
helioseismology - SSM
Bounds on:
- nS
- NSI
- Neutrino decay
(after low energy BOREXINO data)
M. Maltoni, A.Y.S.
for two different
values of Dm212
best fit value
from solar data
upturn
Vacuum
dominated
Transition region
resonance turn on
Matter dominated
region
best global fit
Reconstructed
exp. points for
SK, SNO and
BOREXINO
at high energies
M. Maltoni, A.Y.S.
2015
Red regions: all solar neutrino data
KamLAND data reanalized in view of reactor
anomaly (no front detector) bump at 4 -6 MeV
Dm221 increases
by 0.5 10-5 eV2
or persisting tension
at about 3s - level
Can be
related
Large D-N asymmetry
1.6 times larger value of matter
potential extracted from global fit
another reactor anomaly?
Solar data alone - very
good description at small
Dm221
in solar neutrinos?
Non-standard
neutrino
interaction
Very light
sterile
neutrinos
New sub-leading effects
M. Maltoni, A.Y.S.
difference
Non-standard interactions with
Extra sterile neutrino with
euD = - 0.22, euN = - 0.30
2
-5
2
Dm 01 = 1.2 x 10 eV , and
edD = - 0.12, edN = - 0.16
2
sin 2a = 0.005
NSI due exchange by light (MeV scale mass)
mediators with small couplings allow to avoid
existing bounds
M. Pospelov
Y. Farzan
Cosmic
neutrinos
and
Supernova
All well established/confirmed
results fit well a framework
with
It is widely
believed that
Connection
exists
Where is
ne
nm nt
Dm232
n2
n1
Dm221
Normal mass hierarchy
S m > mh
|Dm231| = |Dm232| + |Dm221|
|Dm2ij|
mass splittings
MASS2
MASS2
n3
n2
n1
Dm221
Dm223
n3
Inverted mass hierarchy
S m > 2 mh
|Dm231| = |Dm232| - |Dm221|
Dij = 4|Uei|2|Uej|2
oscillation depth
Kinematical methods
KATRIN
Oscillations:
m2 >
m3 ~
mh ~> Dm312 > 0.045 eV
Dm212
= 0.18
Dm322
105
the weakest mass
hierarchy,
related to large mixing
104
mn , eV
The heaviest
neutrino
106
Cosmology:
S m < 0.136 eV (95 % CL) Planck 2015 + BAO+
HST
E. Di Valentino, et al
1507.08665 [astro-ph.CO]
S m < (0.3 - 0.4) eV (95 % CL)
conservative
Oscillations,
& cosmology
mh ~(0.045 – 0.10) eV
me Pauli
Fermi
103
102
101
100
10-1
10 -2
Bergkvist
ITEP
Zurich
Los Alamos
Troitzk, Mainz
KATRIN
2016
NOvA - LID
NOvA - LEM
A. Marrone,
B. TAUP 2015
Interactions
dCP
L
q23
x
New: track with E > 2.6 PeV
- cut off at few PeV ?
- gap in (0.4 – 1) PeV range
- spectral index (power sp.?)
S. Schoenen, L. Raedel
Including this
event will affect
Flavor ratios
Spectrum broken
power law
Gashow resonance?
Track
2.6 +/- 0.3 PeV
En > 2.6 PeV
Statements at 2s
level
54 events
Extragalactic
Star forming galaxies with large magnetic field
Contribution from galactic center?
Interesting
coincidence:
FIC ~ FWB
although different
power?
Now and in future
Ara
Auger
Touching BZ
spectrum
Ice Cube
Connection to PeV neutrinos ?
n - g - connection
Multi messenger probes of the Universe
Collective flavor
trasformation
Shock wave
effect on
conversion
MSW flavor
conversion
inside the star
Propagation
in vacuum
With known 1-3 mixing all
MSW transitions are adiabatic
Oscillations
inside the Earth
From 1D to 2D and 3D
- Rich and complicated physics and astrophysics
- Unresolved questions concerning neutrino
production and propagation (collective effects)
- New effects uncovered
Fluxes
Neutrino driven SN explosion
Successful
explosion
New computational capacities
new (refined) codes
3D computations
neutrino transport
more reliable and
detailed fluxes
SASI (Standing Accretion Shock Instability)
modulation of neutrino fluxes (40 – 50 Hz)
LESA (Lepton-number Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry)
directional lepton asymmetry
I. Tambora, et al., 1406.0006
neutrinosphere
R = 20 – 50 km
usual matter potential:
l = V = 2 GF n e
neutrino potential: m = 2 GF (1 – cos x) nn
nn ~ 1/r2
n
r
x
n
in neutrinosphere
in all neutrino species:
nn ~ 1033 cm-3
electron density:
ne ~ 1035 cm-3
l >> m
x ~ 1/r
m ~ 1/r4
for large r
Collective flavor
transformations
Turbulence
effect
1402.1767
Distorted
phase effect
Shock wave
effects
Updated evolution of
the density profile
used
Jing Xu et al,
1412.7240
A Mirizzi 1506.06805
S. Chakraborty et al,
Effect of fluctuations
in
1507.07569
time on instabilities
S. Abbar, H Duan,
1509.01538
K. Patton, et al
1407.7835
Neutrino spin coherence
n - n transformations
in nu gases
The first glimpses?
Fundamental:
principle, symmetry
Accidental: selection of
values of parameters
Normal vs. special
m2
Dm212 = 0.18
~
m3
Dm322
m2
q ~
m3
Similar to quark spectrum
Dm ~ Dm212 = 1.6 10-2
m
2 Dm322
but 1-2 mixing strongly
deviates from maximal
Flavor symmetries
Unification
JUNO,
RENO-50
Earth matter
NOvA
LBNF – DUNE
JPARC-HK
effects,
energy spectra
K.Abe , et al., PTEP 4,
043C01 (2015)
true IH
true NH
Regions where the wrong mass hierarchy is excluded at 90%
CL by NOvA (blue) and NOvA + T2K (grey)
NOvA: 1.8 x 1021 POT nu, anti-nu
T2K: 3.9 x 1021 POT nu, anti-nu
Precision IceCube
Next Generation
Upgrade
K. Clark
40 strings
96 DOM’s per string
PINGU
Oscillation Research with
Cosmics in the Abyss
115 lines, 20m spaced,
18 DOMs/line, 6m spaced
Instrumented volume ~3.8 Mt,
450 m
2070 OM
Poster : Ronald Bruijn
J. Brunner
Highlight talk: C. James
• 31 3” PMTs
• Digital photon counting
• Directional information
•Wide angle view
J. Brunner
ICRC 2015
Muon- and electron-channels contribute to net hierarchy asymmetry.
Electron channel more robust against detector resolution effects:
E, θ smearing
(kinematics
+ detector
resolution)
45
K. Clark
Mass Hierarchy Sensitivity [s]
Crucial developments
of detection
techniques
8
7
6
5
KM3NeT/ORCA PRELIMINARY
NH, q23=42°
IH, q23=42°
NH, q23=48°
IH, q23=48°
4
3
2
1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
Operation time [years]
Also RENO-50
Jiangmen Underground
Neutrino Observatory
d = 700 m, L = 53 km, P = 36 GW
20 kt LAB scintillator
n+pd + g
Key requirement:
energy resolution 3% at 1 MeV
Operation in 2020
(3 - 4)s in 6 years
mbb = Ue12 m1 + Ue22 m2 eia + Ue32 m3 eif
p
n
W
Exclude IH
e
n x mbb
n
e
W
p
S. Dell'Oro, et al,
1505.02722 [hep-ph]
Constraints from cosmological surveys and from oscillations.
The 1σ region for the IH case is not present at this confidence level.
The grey band is the 95% C.L. excluded region coming from Cosmology
Time rise of the anti-ne burst
initial phase: fast  IH P. Serpico et al
Strong suppression of
the ne peak  NH
ne  n3
Permutation of the electron and
non-electron neutrino spectra
Earth matter effects
A. Dighe, A. S.
C. Lunardini
Shock wave
effect
Neutrino
collective
effects
in neutrino
Different for IH
channels  NH
and NH cases;
in antineutrino
spectral splits
 IH
at high energies
G. Fuller, et al
 IH G. Fuller, et al
R. Tomas et al
B. Dasgupta ,et al
If the earth matter effect is
observed for antineutrinos
NH is established!
Adiabatic
evolution
Normal hierarchy
Level crossings
No Earth matter effect
provided that initial fluxes
of nm‘ and nt‘ are identical
Inverted hierarchy
Collective effects and shock waves
may change this.
750 kw upgrade
European
spalation
source Lund
3p/2 from 0
~5-7s
at 2- 3 s
result in 2030 - 2035
O(1) bln US$
In this connection
J. Bian, (for NOvA Coll.)
1510.05708 [hep-ex]
IH is disfavored at 2.2s
NH is preferred in all range of d
Stimulated
transformations
CP phase
effect is
stronger than
hierarchy
Correlations with
1-3 mixing
d /p
d /p
LID
LEM
dCP = 3p/2 is
preferred in
agreement
with T2K result
100 GeV
10 - 15 GeV
3 GeV
3 times denser
array than PINGU
0.5 – 1 GeV
S. Razzaque, A.Y.S.
1406.1407 hep-ph
Megaton-scale
Ice
Cherenkov
Array
Few Mtons in
sub-GeVrange
0.01 GeV
S. Razzaque, A.Y.S.
arXiv: 1406.1407 v2
hep-ph
Sij =
E, GeV
S-distributions
for different
values of d
nm- CC events
Nij d - Nijd = 0
Nijd = 0
Super PINGU,
1 year
E, GeV
Total
distinguishability
ne - CC events
Stot = [S ij Sij2 ]1/2
Flavor misidentification
reduces distinguishability
by factor 1.5 - 2
Ss ~ 3, for d = 3/2p
4 years of exposure
ORCA: effect of dCP
~0.5 σ
A Boyarsky et al,
1402.4119
3.5 kev X ray line
qaS2 ~ 2 10-11 mS ~ 7 keV
Contribution to active neutrino masses
dm ~ qaS2mS~ (1 – 2) 10-7 eV
Too small nS is not RH neutrino
Draco dwarf Galaxy:
observations analysis
Substantial improvement of sensitivity if
energy information is used
A Esmaili, A Y S,
arXiv: 1307.6824 [hep-ph]
Depending on numbers of
energy bins after smearing
With 5% and 10% uncorrelated
systematics
Still expecting official IC results
S Razzaque, A Y S
arXiv:1203.5406
Shift of phase quantifies effect of sterile neutrino
Further
improvement of
sensitivity
Establish
relations
between
neutrinos
and other
phenomena
LHC
physics
DM
DE
BAU
Establish
relations
between
neutrino
parameters
LFV
LNV
Identify
physics
behind
neutrino
mass
Unification
make
predictions
for dCP, Dq23 ,
mass hierarchy
GUT
bottom -up
Correction to l - 4 point
coupling – vacuum stability
Correction to
Higgs mass
Higgs as composite
state of neutrinos
H
dmH2
H
nR
H
H
nL
Upper bound on mass
MR < 107 GeV
 leptogenesis ?
 cancellation (a
kind of SUSY)
F. Vissani ...
J Elias-Miro et al,
R Volkas, et al,
M. Fabbrichesi ...
H
nR
nL
nL
nR
H
H
Other contributions from
particles associated to
neutrino mass generation,
e.g. Higgs triplets
C. Bonila et al, 1506.04031
nL
nR
New strong int.
Generate 4
fermionic coupling
Recent:
J. Krog, C. T. Hill
1506.02843
parallel structures
embedding
SM + nR
L-R
Hidden
sector
Neutrino
portal
P-S
GUT
QFT
Streile
neutrinos
Quark
mixing
UPMNS = UCKM+ UX
where
UCKM ~ VCKM
has similar hierarchical structure
determined by powers of
l = sin qC
From the Dirac matrices of
charged leptons and neutrinos
Prediction for
the 1-3 mixing
my prejudice
C. Giunti, M. Tanimoto
H. Minakata, A Y S
Z - Z. Xing
J Harada
S Antusch , S. F. King
Y Farzan, A Y S
M Picariello , … .
UX has some special form
determined by symmetry
related to mechanism
that explains smallness of
neutrino mass
UX ~ U23(p/4) U12
sin2q13 = sin2q23 sin2qC (1 + O(l2))
sin2q13
~½
sin2qC
in a good
agreement with
measurements
Take
1) whole VCKM with small elements Vtd ,Vcb, etc.
 this will give also corrections to 2-3 mixing
2) non-maximal rotation U23(qx23):
UX = G(a) U23(qx23) U12(qx12)
G(a) = diag(1, 1, eia)
sin2 q13 = sin2qx23 sin2qC 1 - 2cot qx23 cos (a - ftd ) |Vtd|/|Vcd|
where ftd = Arg Vtd
In Wolfenstein parametrization
sin2 q13 = sin2qx23 l2 1 - 2Al2[(1 - r)2 + h2]1/2cot qx23 cos (a - ftd )
tan2 q23 = tan2qx23 (1 - l2) 1 - 2Al2 sin-1 2qx23 cos a
tan2 q23 = tan2qx23 k (a)
Excluding qx23
k = (1 - l2) 1 - 4Al2 cos a
sin2 q13 = f(q23 , a)
Normal mass
ordering
1s
Daya Bay
3s
Dependence of 1-3 mixing on
2-3 mixing for different
values of the phase a.
Allowed regions are according
to the global fit NuFIT
1s 2s
3s
Allowed regions of of
parameters of UX
UPMNS ~ VCKM+ UX
If the only source
of CP violation
No CPV
B. Dasgupta, A.S.
sinq13 sin dCP = (-cos q23) sinq13q sindq
l
sin dCP ~ l3/s13 ~ l2 ~ 0.046
dCP ~ - d or p + d
l3
dq = 1.2 +/- 0.08 rad
where d = (s13q /s13) c23 sin dq
If the phase dCP deviates substantially from
0 or p, new sources of CPV beyond CKM
New sources may have specific symmetries
which lead to particular values of dCP e.g. -p /2
if not
accidental
Quarks and leptons know about each other,
Q L unification, GUT or/and
Common flavor symmetries
Some additional physics is involved in the lepton sector
which explains smallness of neutrino mass and difference
of the quark and lepton mixing patterns
Two types of new physics
CKM
Neutrino new
physics
Indicates SO(10): no CKM mixing
in the first approximation
Patrick Ludl A.S
SM 
SO(10)
fermions 1Si
bosons 1Hj
GYukawa
Visible
sector
Gbasis
Portal
Gbasis
Gportal
Ghidden
Hidden
sector
Patrick Ludl A.S
MX = dT MS d
SO(10)
UX
UCKM
10H
16F
mass hierarchy
CKM mixing –
independently
with additional
structures
16H
No mixing
mD ~ MD = diag
d~I
SF
1H
Mixing by S-S
a b b
MS ~ ... c d
... ... c
Visible sector
Yij 16Fi 16Fj 10Hu
mD
Portal interactions Yij’ 16Fi 1Sj 16H
MD
Hidden sector
interactions
MS
In general
hijk 1Si 1Sj 1Hk
Y ~ y (<f> /L)n
For third generation: n = 0, i.e. the mass is generated at
the renormalizable level
No mixing is generated by F-F at this level
Allow to separate CKM and Neutrino new physics
mDl = mD
Although mixing is not generated, masses are generated by the F-F term
Information about states with definite masses
should be communicated to the Hidden sector
For this - symmetry which
- distinguishes three 16-plets, and
- makes the F-F interactions diagonal
The smallest group is
with charge assignment
matrix of charges
of F-F couplings
assignment
Gbasis
Gbasis = Z2 x Z2
(1, 0), (0,1), (0,0)
powers of eip
(0, 0), (1,1), (1,0)
(1, 1), (0,0), (0,1)
(1, 0), (0.1), (0.0)
Both distinguishes states and
makes couplings diagonal
(1, 0), (0,1), (1,1) with 3 nontrivial charges fixes number of generations
carry Gbasis charges
Y’ 16F 1S 16H
Portal interactions
1S
16H
Yii’ 16Fi 1Si 16H
Direct
New flavons
1h
Yik’ 16Fi 1Sk 16Hi
Gbasis
G’basis
1
L
G’basis
Yij’ 16Fi 1Sj 16H1hi
Gbasis
Gbasis
SF as mediators
10H
16f
16H
Sf
1H
(0,0)
(1,0)
(0,1)
(0,0)
(0,0)
(1,0)
(0,1)
(0,0)
(0,0)
(0,1)
Z2 x Z2
Gaux= Z3
w
w
w
w
w
in the lowest (dimension )
order
mD = <10H> diag (Y1, Y2, Y3)
MD = <16H> diag (Y’1, Y’2, Y’3)
d = diagonal
w = ei2p/3
Mixing is due to
non-trivial Z2 x Z2
charges of 1H
terms that generate MS
contain three fields charged
with respect to Z2 x Z2
others --two
SF as mediators
Explicit or
spontaneous
10H
16f
Gf
Gbasis
16H
Gf = A4 x Z2
spontaneous
Ghidden
Sf
1H
Gbasis = Z2 x Z2
Patrick Ludl A.S
vd = 0
vu = 0
10Hu
10Hd i
(0,0)
(0,1)
(1, 1)
Spontaneous
breaking of
Z2 x Z2
16f
(1,0)
(0,1)
(0,0)
16H
(0,0)
Sf
1H
(1,0)
(0,1)
(0,0)
(0,0)
(0,0)
(0,1)
(0, 0) (1,1) (1,0)
(1, 1) (0,0) (0,1)
(1, 0) (0.1) (0.0)
Alternatively: additional higgs
singlets 1xi with Z’2 = - 1
10Hdi  10Hd (1xi/L)
additional G’aux= Z’2 distinguishes two ten-plets
Z2 x Z2
Mature field with long history: In the first
approximation (leading effects) phenomenology
is elaborated and explored.
Next phase: sub-leading effects at % and sub- % level
New effects, new opportunities, new challenges
Cosmic / astrophysical neutrinos
(origins, new physics, )
Supernova neutrinos: the place where we do not
understand even the lowest order effects.
From 1D to 3D.
Are we ready to analyse signal if arrives tomorrow?
Tension?
Upturn
D-N
potential
Sterile neutrinos, NSI ?
Mass ordering
CP-violation
The first glimpses of
statistical fluctuations?
Hierarchy may turns out to be more difficult
Large atmospheric neutrino detectors with low
energy thresholds can play the key role
with very strong physics/ discovery potential
(MO, dCP, NSI, nS ) relatively cheap
NOvA, T2K, further upgrade of JPARC 
New strategy for CP violation?
Checks of existence of 1 eV steriles is the must.
Still no results from the IceCube results on sterile.
7 kev sterile : WDM
further checks of the 3.5 kev line
Higgs physics
Neutrinos
Terra scale physics, LHC
Dark matter
Axions
LFV processes
Neutrinos and GUT’s
Neutrino portal to the Hidden sector
Symmetry or no symmetry
New realizations of flavor symmetries
New physics at low scales < 100 MeV
Day-night asymmetry
To be further studied
CNO neutrinos
Earth matter effect on Be neutrinos
SNO+
JUNO,
DUNE,
Jin-Ping
Large volume Double phase LAr
D. Franco et al.., 1510.04196 [physics.ins-det]
Checks of existence of 1 eV steriles is the must.
Still no results from the IceCube results on sterile.
7 kev sterile : further checks of the 3.5 kev line,
Does not play any role in generation of masses of light neutrinos.
Probably not a right handed component but some new fermion
on the top of 3 RH neutrinos
Searches for new neutrino states (sterile, partially sterile) will
continue anyway. Goal –upper bounds on mixing as function of mass.
For 1 eV bound on mixing at the level sin2 qaS < 10-3 is important
to exclude substantial influence on the 3n picture .
Tests of the low scale mechanisms of neutrino mass generation
Discovery of almost any kind on new physics will have impact
on neutrino physics
No new physics result is possible
Are and will be of the highest priority
Active area of
research
will be further explored
Also possible connections to Dark radiation, Dark energy
Neutrinos as probe of Dark Universe:
High energy cosmic neutrinos,
Relic supernova neutrinos
Very light sector
which may include
- new scalar bosons, majoron, axions,
- new fermions (sterile neutrinos, partially sterile),
- new gauge bosons (e.g. Dark photons)
- gravitinos
Interaction via neutrino portal
Parametrising unknown physics
Useful to establish relations between
different phenomena,.
since the same operator can be
responsible for different effects
mn
mee
LHC
observables
Experiments
Also being “dressed’’
by the SM interactions,
can be used to classify the
radioactive mechanisms
Radiative
mechanisms
Three level
See-saw
Type I, II, III
Inverse seesaw
Seesaw with
extended
scalar and fermion
sectors
scales
Mixed
mechanisms
One
Two
Three
...
loops
Embedding can
fix parameters of
mechanisms
UPMNS ~ VCKM+ UX
If the only source
of CP violation
No CPV
B. Dasgupta, A.S.
sinq13 sin dCP = (-cos q23) sinq13q sindq
l
sin dCP ~ l3/s13 ~ l2 ~ 0.046
dCP ~ - d or p + d
l3
dq = 1.2 +/- 0.08 rad
where d = (s13q /s13) c23 sin dq
If the phase dCP deviates substantially from
0 or p, new sources of CPV beyond CKM
New sources may have specific symmetries
which lead to particular values of dCP e.g. -p /2
B. Dasgupta, A Y.S. ,
Nucl.Phys. B884 (2014) 357
1404.0272 [hep-ph]
any value of the phase can be obtained
Also taking UX from seesaw
In contrast to quarks for Majorana neutrinos the RH rotation
that diagonalizes mD becomes relevant and contributes to PMNS
In the LR symmetric basis
minimal extension is the L- R symmetry:
UR = UL ~ VCKM*
and no CPV in MR
Seesaw can enhance this small CPV effect,
so that resulting phase in PMNS is large
Should not miss chance with PINGU, ORCA,
probably with JUNO, RENO50
Accuracy of sin 2q23 better than 0.05 to
test various relation is required
Enormous physics/discovery potential
Next: LBNF, ESS?
A possibility to measure the phase using multi- megaton
scale atmospheric neutrino detectors should be explored
Specific values like 0, p , p/2 may have more
straightforward implications (still not unique)
+/- p/2 can be related (by symmetry) with maximal
2-3 mixing, quasi-degeneracy of mass states ...
Comparison with quark phase will be interesting
Even in unification approach they can be very different.
Substantial deviation of dCP from 0, p ,
will testify for new sources of CP in lepton sector
Day-night asymmetry
To be further studied
CNO neutrinos
Earth matter effect on Be neutrinos
Hopefully a signal will arrive soon
Still role collective effects in neutrino oscillations is
not completely understood...
Lepton asymmetry in emission ?
After 1-3 symmetry or no symmetry behind the lepton
mixing and masses. Symmetry: accidental or real with new
structures?
Grand Unification, high (GUT) scale seesaw,
additional hidden sector (at GUT-Planck scale)
flavor symmetries at high scales – still appealing scenario
No simple solution is expected and different type of new physics
(e.g. CKM new physics and neutrino new physics) can be involved
New experimental input is needed for further progress!
1. Collective flavor transformations
Suppression of the multi-azimuthal angle (MAA)
instabilities by usual matter effect
Spontaneous breaking of symmetries of bulb model
in 2D and 3D flavor conversion  directional
dependence of flavor composition
Self-induced flavor conversion on small scales
Sensitivity to time evolution of n-spectra
Neutrino spin coherence
n - n transformations in nu gases
A. Vlasenko 1406.6724
m – like events:
nm + N  m + X
e - like events:
ne + N  e + X
E = 0.1 – 5 GeV
4p + 2e-  4He + 2ne + 26.73 MeV
Adiabatic
conversion
LMA MSW
BOREXINO
n
Oscillations
in matter
of the Earth
Observe vacuum oscillations of ne
Consistent with parameters of
the LMA MSW solution
M.C. Gonzalez-Garcia, M. Maltoni,
T. Schwetz, JHEP 1411 (2014)
052,1409.5439 [hep-ph]
2-3 mixing:
asymmetric for NO and IO
sin2q23 = 0.45 (NO), = 0.58 (IO)
Small preference IO and
2nd quadrant
M.C. Gonzalez-Garcia, M. Maltoni,
T. Schwetz, JHEP 1411 (2014)
052,1409.5439 [hep-ph]
Inverted
Normal
Contribution of different
sets of experimental results
to the determination of the
mass ordering, the octant of
θ23 and of the CP violating
phase.
Genesis of determination
Solar
Reactors
MINOS dis
+
T2K - Dis
+
Atm nu contribution: excess
of sub GeV nue events
T2K-App
+
MINOS-App
+
Atmospheric
Interactions
nS
mn
dCP
q23
L
and goals
CPT
Equivalence
principle
Includes also low (MeV)
energies
Experiments
Dominated by IC
Bounds from ANTARES
Analysis of IC events
54 + ... events,
track with E > 2.6 PeV
affects various interpretations
DM decay?
impressive progress
Neutrino self-veto
Energy spectrum
Flavor composition, ratios
- cut off at few PeV ?
- gap in (0.3 – 1) PeV range
- spectral index (power sp.?)
Broken power spectrum
projections
approximate symmetry
NH  IH
sin d  sin (p - d)
NOvA
after 7.6% of expected exposure
ne - appearance
observed : 33 events, expected: 201 events
nm - disappearance
Likelihood Identification selection
expected (NH, q23 = p/4):
observed: 6 events
5.62 +/- 0.72 events (dCP = 3p/2)
2.24 +/- 0.29 events (dCP = p/2)
bgrd. 0.94 +/- 0.09 events
Library event matching selection
observed: 11 events
The phase dCP = 3p/2 is preferred in agreement with T2K result
Global fit with NOvA: dCP = 0 is disafavored at 2s; dCP = p/2 - at 3s
A. Marrone
At the end of NOvA / T2K operation CP violation can be established
at > (3 – 4) s
100 TeV
V. S. Berezinsky and A Yu. S.
Phys. Lett. 48B 269 (1974)
Experiments
Flux
sin2q13 systematically decreased with
time in all experiments and now 3s
below the benchmark value
Higher flux - deficit of signal
Bump at 4 – 6 MeV
can be accounted by uncertainties due to
contribution of forbidden transitions?
Origins of the “shoulder’’ in the flux
A.C Hayes et al, 1506.00583
Daya Bay – in agreement with previous
measurements, thus confirming anomaly
Fobs /FH-M = 0.946 +/- 0.022
Fobs /FILL-F = 0.991 +/- 0.023
1508.04233
very SBL
experiments
For searcher for
eV-scale steriles
PROSPECT
Neutrino 4
SM-3
...
Medium BL
experiments
JUNO, RENO-50:
Mass ordering (hierarchy)
precision measurements
of Dm221 , q12
Studies of requirements
effects of systematics
Beyond 3n paradigm:
NSI ,
nS
n decay
Constrains on nS – parameters from
Daya Bay (for relatively small mass)
I. Girardi et al, 1405.6540
- nS - in large Extra D framework
- NSI at production, detection
Effect of NSI at production and
detection on determination of
oscillation parameters
NSI in anti n – e scattering
1408.6301
Broken power spectrum
LEM and LID
FNAL – Ash River
L = 810 km, 14 kton
off axis 3.3o
E = 1 - 3 GeV
nm - ne
oscillations in matter
Relic standard
neutrinos
WDM neutrinos
3.5 kev X ray line
Cosmology
A Boyarsky et al,
1402.4119
Sm < 0.136 eV (95 % CL)
Planck 2015 + BAO+ HST
E. Di Valentino, et al
1507.08665 [astro-ph.CO]
Sm < 0.23 eV (95 % CL)
Planck 2015 + TT + low P
qaS2 ~ 2 10-11
mS ~ 7 keV
Contribution to active neutrino masses
dm ~ qaS2mS~ (1 – 2) 10-7 eV
Too small nS is not RH neutrino
54 events
nS
eV mass
scale
NSI
SuperK bound on nS - nm and nS - nt
1410.2008
IceCube result on nS - nm - mixing: expected
Constrains on NSI in propagation
J. Salvado
S. Fukasawa 1405.4664
S. Fukasawa, O. Yasuda
1503.08056
R Gandhi et al, 1409.5755
VFS
Tests of Lorentz invariance
(bound on SME parameters)
SuperK: 1410.4267
Lorentz and CPT with ICAL
R. Gandhi et al,1402.6265
Constrains on violation of
equivalence principle with IC
A. Esmaili et al, 1404.3608
54 events
VEW2
mn
High scale seesaw
Quark- lepton
symmetry /analogy
GUT
Low scale seesaw,
radiative
mechanisms, RPV,
high dimensional
operators
Scale of neutrino
masses themselves
Relation to dark
energy, MAVAN?
Spurious scale?
Neutrino mass itself is the
fundamental scale of new physics
with
intermediate
possibilities
Now
and in future
Multi messenger probes of the Universe
Interactions
- Relic neutrinos
- DM particles
- probes of space
IC high energy extensions
Km3 NET
Baical
QG Effects
increase
with energy
Number of events
Super-Kamiokande
Collaboration
(A. Himmel)
arXiv:1310.6677 [hep-ex]
The data binned in lepton momentum for
sub-GeV samples without zenith binning in
the left column
black points - SKI-IV data,
unoscillated MC,
the best oscillation fit
Zenith angle
distributions of
different type of
events in different
energy intervals
Deficit of signal
in mu channel
depends zenith angle
and energy
Propagation
Averaged vacuum oscillations
Matter conversion in source (at low energies)
Interactions in the interstellar/Galactic medium
e..g. with DM if non-standard physics involved
Correlations
directionality, isotropy, correlations with other
objects/ events, g sources
Sources
Extragalactic
Coincidence: F ~ F
IC
WB
With significant
contribution from G.
- Universal mechanism of acceleration of CR with E-2
E. Waxman
- “Calorimeter’’ neutrino sources
Star forming galaxies
In BZ (cosmogenic) range? with large magnetic field
antineutrinos
neutrinos
CC interactions, muon tracks
Possible distortion of the zenith angle
distribution due to sterile neutrinos
< 3% stat. error
Varying |Ut0|2
A. Gross, 1301.4339 [hep-ex]
IC79
Less than 5% puls
Mass ordering
collective effects:
specific time varying collective
effects at the accretion phase
Time profiles of events in SK
(mostly sensitive to anti n) and
in LAr TPC (moostly sensitive to n )
SN Nucleosynthesis
Diffuse neutrino fluxes
Neutrinos from
pre SN star
Absolute scale
Wu, Qian et al
1412.8587
with JUNO, LiAr DUNE
nS
Impact of on early time flux
(neutronization)
Oscillations in core
Periodicity in n luminosity
A. Esmaili and P. Serpico
J. Bian, (for NOvA Coll.)
1510.05708 [hep-ex]
NH gives better fit
Shift of
strategy?
Story can be shorter
than expected
European spalation
source Lund
750 kw upgrade
at 2- 3 s
3p/2 from 0
~5-7s
result in 2030 - 2035
~ 2 bln US$
Long term and expensive
commitment
All possible alternatives must be explored
and scenarios of developments in the next 20
years should be considered
d /p
d /p
LID
LEM
Correlations with
2-3 mixinged
transformations
approximate symmetry
NH  IH sin d  sin (p - d)
T2K Collaboration (K. Abe et al.).
Phys.Rev. D91 (2015) 7, 072010
arXiv:1502.01550 [hep-ex]
0
1
E (GeV)
2
3
-
hierarchy of Yukawas Yi , Y’i
CKM mixing
difference of masses of upper and down quarks
difference of masses of down quarks and charged leptons
Related to breaking of SO(10)
Framework allows to disentangle the CKM physics and neutrino physics
Hierarchy of masses
due to hierarchy of couplings: Y1 << Y2 << Y3, Y’1 << Y’2 << Y’3
 in turn, due to operators of different order:
3rd generation renormalizable coupling with , Y3 = 1, Y’3 = 1
2nd generation:
Y ~ y (<f> /L)
1st generation:
Y ~ y (<f> /L)2
1Y 10H
16f
4
(0,0)
(1,0) 1
(0,1) 3
(0,0) 0
1
-1
i
16H
Sf
(0,0)
(1,0) 1
(0,1) 3
(0,0) 0
-1
i
1H
(0,0) 4
(0,0) 0
(0,1) 2
-1
Y1 = y1 (< 1Y >/L)2
Y2 = y2 (< 1Y >/L)
Y3 = y3
allows to get dominant
2-3 block in MS
CKM and Nu physics
are entangled
ei2p/5
Z2 x Z2
GYukawa= Z5
Gaux= Z4
to forbid
“unwanted”
couplings
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