French Revolution

Napoleon/C of V
 Objective: We will examine
the impact Napoleon had on
Western Civilization and the
French Revolution to
determine his role on
shaping European history.
Napoleon in the Revolution
 Background:
Corsican (colony) of modest
Received military training in
France, disliked
Revolution allows rise in
rank. Why?
given position by COPS
where he takes parts of Italy.
Military Success
 Leads men on the front
lines, courageous in
 Shares war booty with
men equally, everyone
gets a part of the victory.
 Steals from Austria and
Italy. Italian soldiers join
with him and make him
 Soldiers love him
Egyptian Campaign
 Attempt at England/Glory. Successful at
first, however loses at the Battle of the
Nile to Horatio Nelson.
 Sends/brings back treasures for France.
 Has news of his loss kept out of papers.
Returns a hero, “The General”
 Convinced to overthrow the Directory by
Abbe Sieyes. November 9, 1799
Napoleon begins his coup d’Etat.
Rosetta Stone
The Consulate
18 Brumaire
 Which Revolutionary government is in
power in 1799?
 Napoleon comes back with the idea that
he will take over with the help of
powerful politicians as “the enforcer” w/
his army. Consulate is new gov’t.
 Quickly becomes only powerful leader
(first consul).
 Utilized Plebiscite, or the popular vote,
for support.
His Domestic Rule
 New constitution gave
power to Nap.
 Platform: Revolutionary
ideas that helped him gain
power/popularity such as:
Economy (nat. bank, taxes
Napoleonic Code, ended
corruption, promotion by
merit , new noble class
created, etc.
Made peace with the Pope
(concordat of 1801),
pleased people.
 "My policy is to govern men as the greatest
number wish to be governed. . . . I carried on
the war of Vendee by becoming a Catholic; I
established myself in Egypt by becoming a
Mussulman… If I governed Jews I should
reestablish the temple of Solomon. . . . It is
thus, I think, that the sovereignty of the
people should be understood."
Another Contradiction
 Secret police in conquered areas, and
 Shut down newspapers, censored mail,
arbitrary legal actions.
 Enlightened ideas? Who/What does this
remind you of in earlier eras?
The Empire
 Crowned by himself in1804
 Wanted control of all Europe
 Louisiana Purchase: “The sale assures
forever the power of the U.S., and I have
given England a rival who, sooner or
later, will humble her pride.”
 Started to move into the rest of Europe
with his huge army.
 Annexed, {incorporated into empire}
large amounts of territory
Expanding The Empire
 Switzerland had puppet gov’t., and
Netherlands/parts of Italy annexed.
 3rd coalition against France=Britain,
Russia, Austria, Sweden. Results=more
power. Austerlitz 1805. LARGEST
 By 1807 he was master of Europe.
 3 kinds of control:
1). Direct (French Empire)
2). Controlled by Nap (Dependent Nations)
3). Allies (under threat)
What might this do to the countries under
his control?
 Nationalism!
 England had escaped Napoleon’s wrath
b/c of their navy
 Napoleon tries to wipe out their navy but
loses at Trafalgar (1805).
 Nelson defeats Napoleon again,
although is killed. Three outcomes:
1). UK’s navy superior to all
2). Nap. Has no control over UK
3). Leads to decisions of desperation
The Demise of the Empire
 Divorce to Josephine, married Marie
Louise from? Showed?
 Napoleon made three HUGE mistakes
that weakened his empire.
 1). Continental System: blockade
between Britain and Europe. Aimed at
destroying U.K./strengthening Europe.
Not tight enough, hurt France’s economy.
 2). Peninsular War with
Spain cost 300,000 men
with guerilla warfare /
sense of nationalism
Drastically hurts army, loses
money and prestige.
Third of May, 1808 by Goya
 3). Invades Russia
June 1812. Why?
Borodino (Sep. 7)
led to Moscow
Stays in Moscow 5
weeks waiting
“Great Retreat”
AWOL and deaths
Fourth Coalition
 All enemies (former
“allies”) gang up on
France and surround
Paris (1814).
 Napoleon gives up
after people suffer.
 March 1814 he
surrenders and is
exiled to Elba
 Is given rule over the island
 Bourbon’s restored to
French throne (Louis XVIII)
 Napoleon asked by some
to return. Begins the 100
Days Campaign.
100 Days campaign and
 March to Paris
gaining troops (“I
have enough”) to
 Gathers army
together takes
 Waterloo
Blucher and Wellington
Aftermath of Waterloo
Second Exile
 Sent to St. Helena off
of Africa to make
sure he wouldn’t
come back.
 Dies (1821) of
stomach cancer
trying to maintain
 Napoleon
 Threats to absolutism/monarchs
 Enlightenment
 Growing power of colonies
 Representatives from England, Austria, Prussia,
& Russia met in Vienna (Austria)
Quadruple Alliance {Rus. Prus. Aus.
G.B.} what did they want to accomplish?
 Create balance of power (no country
able to threaten other) (Collusion)
 Protect the monarchies from losing
control/restore monarchies (legitimacy)
France (XVIII), Spain & N. Italy Haps., etc.
 Surround France with powerful countries
 France lost all land gained by Napoleon
 Louis XVIII was named King of France
Challenged briefly by Napoleon
Maintained control after Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo
 Prussia & Austria took control of the German states
 Prussia, Austria, & German states form a German
 Britain controlled the seas
 Concert of Europe – Powers agree to meet
 Significant border change, however a
move back to Conservatism.
Is it possible to shove revolutionary ideas
back into the box? For how long?
 1). What could Napoleon have done
differently when organizing his Empire
(historical examples)?
 2). What could Napoleon have done
differently with the Continental System,
Invasion of Russia, and Peninsular
Campaign, if anything? What was the
MAIN problem with holding his Empire