The Art of Public Speaking

Chapter 1
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Aristotle: Father of rhetoric
◦ The practice of public speaking to attain a goal by using
persuasive tactics
It was not until the 5th century BCE roots of rhetoric were
planted for it to become an art form by teachers, called
Sophists (wisdom bearer).
Evidence in persuasive messages is most effective
in the source’s
 Ethos: Credibility
 Pathos: Emotional appeal
 Logos: logical appeal
Cicero (106-432BCE): believed that a well
rounded education in the liberal arts would
enable speakers to speak with knowledge
and expressiveness.
Quintilian ( 35-95 AD): was interested in
preparing orators who spoke eloquently,
exhibiting good moral character and ethics
(a good man speaking well).
Marked by Civil War
A number of notable speakers, politicians,
abolitionists, women’s right activist used
public speaking to promote their cause.
Declamation: speeches and orations of
notable persons delivered by students.
Elocution: the expression of emotion in
speeches through the use of gestures,
movement, facial expressions, posture, and
The transmission of a message using the
media, such as the following:
Before mass communication, oratory was the
means by which messages of state were
Global village: A term coined by Wyndham Lewis in
1948 that the world has shrunk through
advantages in communication thereby bringing
everybody closer to each other.
Claude Shannon of Bell Lab attempted to
route the most telephone calls with the least
Warren Weaver: adopted the theory to human
Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication
recognizes seven elements that shape our
1. Source (speaker): transmits ideas or
information to the receiver
Encoding: t he development of information form the
thoughts, feelings, or ideas in the mind of the source
through the process of selection, formulation and
Code: verbal or nonverbal symbols
2. Message: the information or ideas conveyed
to the receiver
 Decode: to be able to translate code into an
understandable language
3. Channel: the means by which the message is sent to the
4. Receiver (Audience): whom the message is sent
5. Feedback: verbal and nonverbal response to a message
Public speaking is the art, process, or act of
effectively addressing the public to inform,
persuade, or entertain them.
Types of Speeches
◦ Informative speech: speech to educate an audience
about a topic.
◦ Persuasive speech: speech that attempts to sway
the attitudes, beliefs or values of an audience.
◦ Entertaining speech: speech making fun of people,
institutions, or events to solicit humorous feedback.
Two (2) Basic Types of Communication
◦ Verbal communication: the practice of all varieties
of speech and writing.
◦ Nonverbal communication: facial expressions, body
movements, gestures, and appearance that take
place during the transmission and reception of
 Most communication, or as much as 65% of
communication is nonverbal.
Intrapersonal communication:
Communication with or within oneself
Interpersonal communication: communication
with two or more people
Small group communication: communication
with a small number of persons
Public Communication: delivery of a speech
to an audience
Mass Communication: communication via
Fear of public speaking and the fear of death
ranks #1 in most surveys asking people of their
Communication apprehension: the fear of
speaking to others
Communication anxiety is a universal
phenomenon. Nervousness is quite common,
even among seasoned politicians, actors,
teachers, and others who engage in public
1. Physical symptoms: include dry throat,
nausea, increase in heart palpitation,
sweating, changing colors, shaking of
hands and/or legs, cold hands
2. Psychological symptoms: include
avoiding eye contact with the audience,
forgetting the speech, gazing at the floor,
ceiling or other objects
3. Both Physical and psychological
Know Your Environment
Know Your Audience
Know Your Speech
Learn to Relax
Visualize a Successful Speech
Know that the Audience Wants you to Succeed
Do not Apologize for Your Apprehension
Concentrate on the message (not your fear)
Make your Nervousness Work for You
Gain Experience
Evaluate Yourself
Conversations: oral communication with members
of your family, friends, and coworkers
Many of the principles of conversation also apply to
public speaking inclusive of similarities and
Some conversations are planned.
This planning of conversations involves
carefully choosing the right words.
Public speaking involves much more planning
from choosing a topic, to performing
research and practicing delivery.
Although many conversations are planned, most is spur-of-themoment. Public speaking is different in that it is usually planned.
Stick to the topic selected, researched and practiced.
Most conversations use informal language (slang, words, cliches
and jargon).
Audiences expect speakers to use language that follows
traditional standards of correctness.
Proximity: physical closeness may be absent during public
Back and forth exchange of messages in conversation is missing
form public speaking.
Hagia Sophia
12% of the U. S. population is foreign born.
Mexico is the leading country of Origin.
Out of every 100 Americans
◦ 14 are Latinos
◦ 13 are African American
◦ 7 are Asians
Children of Immigrants are regularly bilingual.
◦ Be sure tone is clear an appropriate for audiences of
all backgrounds.
◦ Use support material appropriate to a wide variety
of listeners.
◦ Use Visual aids to help overcome cultural and
language barriers.
◦ Be especially tuned to audience feedback for
difficulties in understanding speech.