Chapter 1 Public Relations Specialist Sales Representative Human Resources Specialist Radio and Television Broadcaster Radio and Television announcer Editor Speech Teacher Advisor Recruiter Aristotle: Father of rhetoric ◦ The practice of public speaking to attain a goal by using persuasive tactics It was not until the 5th century BCE roots of rhetoric were planted for it to become an art form by teachers, called Sophists (wisdom bearer). Constantinople Evidence in persuasive messages is most effective in the source’s Ethos: Credibility Pathos: Emotional appeal Logos: logical appeal Cicero (106-432BCE): believed that a well rounded education in the liberal arts would enable speakers to speak with knowledge and expressiveness. Quintilian ( 35-95 AD): was interested in preparing orators who spoke eloquently, exhibiting good moral character and ethics (a good man speaking well). Marked by Civil War A number of notable speakers, politicians, abolitionists, women’s right activist used public speaking to promote their cause. Declamation: speeches and orations of notable persons delivered by students. Elocution: the expression of emotion in speeches through the use of gestures, movement, facial expressions, posture, and voice. Definition The transmission of a message using the media, such as the following: radio television newspapers magazines Internet Before mass communication, oratory was the means by which messages of state were disseminated. Global village: A term coined by Wyndham Lewis in 1948 that the world has shrunk through advantages in communication thereby bringing everybody closer to each other. Claude Shannon of Bell Lab attempted to route the most telephone calls with the least distortion. Warren Weaver: adopted the theory to human communication. Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication recognizes seven elements that shape our communication. 1. Source (speaker): transmits ideas or information to the receiver Encoding: t he development of information form the thoughts, feelings, or ideas in the mind of the source through the process of selection, formulation and organization. Code: verbal or nonverbal symbols 2. Message: the information or ideas conveyed to the receiver Decode: to be able to translate code into an understandable language 3. Channel: the means by which the message is sent to the receiver 4. Receiver (Audience): whom the message is sent 5. Feedback: verbal and nonverbal response to a message Public speaking is the art, process, or act of effectively addressing the public to inform, persuade, or entertain them. Types of Speeches ◦ Informative speech: speech to educate an audience about a topic. ◦ Persuasive speech: speech that attempts to sway the attitudes, beliefs or values of an audience. ◦ Entertaining speech: speech making fun of people, institutions, or events to solicit humorous feedback. Two (2) Basic Types of Communication ◦ Verbal communication: the practice of all varieties of speech and writing. ◦ Nonverbal communication: facial expressions, body movements, gestures, and appearance that take place during the transmission and reception of messages. Most communication, or as much as 65% of communication is nonverbal. Intrapersonal communication: Communication with or within oneself Interpersonal communication: communication with two or more people Small group communication: communication with a small number of persons Public Communication: delivery of a speech to an audience Mass Communication: communication via media Fear of public speaking and the fear of death ranks #1 in most surveys asking people of their fears. Communication apprehension: the fear of speaking to others Communication anxiety is a universal phenomenon. Nervousness is quite common, even among seasoned politicians, actors, teachers, and others who engage in public speaking. 1. Physical symptoms: include dry throat, nausea, increase in heart palpitation, sweating, changing colors, shaking of hands and/or legs, cold hands 2. Psychological symptoms: include avoiding eye contact with the audience, forgetting the speech, gazing at the floor, ceiling or other objects 3. Both Physical and psychological symptoms Know Your Environment Know Your Audience Know Your Speech Learn to Relax Visualize a Successful Speech Know that the Audience Wants you to Succeed Do not Apologize for Your Apprehension Concentrate on the message (not your fear) Make your Nervousness Work for You Gain Experience Evaluate Yourself Conversations: oral communication with members of your family, friends, and coworkers Many of the principles of conversation also apply to public speaking inclusive of similarities and differences. Some conversations are planned. This planning of conversations involves carefully choosing the right words. Public speaking involves much more planning from choosing a topic, to performing research and practicing delivery. Although many conversations are planned, most is spur-of-themoment. Public speaking is different in that it is usually planned. Stick to the topic selected, researched and practiced. Most conversations use informal language (slang, words, cliches and jargon). Audiences expect speakers to use language that follows traditional standards of correctness. Proximity: physical closeness may be absent during public speaking. Back and forth exchange of messages in conversation is missing form public speaking. Hagia Sophia 12% of the U. S. population is foreign born. Mexico is the leading country of Origin. Out of every 100 Americans ◦ 14 are Latinos ◦ 13 are African American ◦ 7 are Asians Children of Immigrants are regularly bilingual. ◦ Be sure tone is clear an appropriate for audiences of all backgrounds. ◦ Use support material appropriate to a wide variety of listeners. ◦ Use Visual aids to help overcome cultural and language barriers. ◦ Be especially tuned to audience feedback for difficulties in understanding speech.