Ch17 Leadership and Influence Processes


Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Managing Leadership and

Influence Processes

The Nature of Leadership

 What does leadership mean?

 A process, the use of non-coercive influence to shape the group’s or organization’s goals, and:

Motivate behavior.

Define group or organizational culture.

 What are the characteristics of those who are perceived to be leaders?

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Who Are Leaders?

 People who:

 Can influence the behaviors of others.

 Are able to influence without having to rely on force.

 Are accepted by others as leaders.

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

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Leadership Versus Management

Management: Planning and budgeting.

Organizing and staffing.

Controlling and problem solving.

Producing a degree of predictability.


Establishing direction.

Aligning people.

Motivating and inspiring.

Producing change, often to a dramatic degree.

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Power and Leadership

 What is power?

 The ability to affect the behavior of others.

 Legitimate power:

 Power granted through the organizational structure, it is the power accorded people occupying particular positions as defined by the organization.

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Reward Power Defined

 Reward power:

 The power to give or withhold rewards, such as:

Salary increases.




Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

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Types of Power

 Coercive power:

 The power to force compliance by means of psychological, emotional, or physical threat.

 Referent power:

 The personal power that accrues to someone based on identification, imitation, loyalty, or charisma.

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

What Is Expert Power?

 The personal power that accrues to someone based on the information or expertise that they possess.

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

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Michigan Studies on

Leadership Behavior

 Job-centered leader:

 Leaders who pay close attention to an employ’s job and work procedures involved with that job.

 Employee-centered leader:

 Leaders who develop cohesive work groups and ensure employee satisfaction.

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

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Ohio State Leadership Studies

 Initiating-structure behavior:

 Leaders who define the leader-subordinate roles so that everyone knows what is expected, establish formal lines of communication, and determine how tasks will be performed.

 Consideration behavior:

 Leaders who show concern for subordinates and attempt to establish a friendly and supportive climate.

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

The Leadership Grid

 A method of evaluating leadership styles to train managers using OD techniques so that they are simultaneously more concerned for both people and production.

 Concern for production:

 Deals with the job aspects of leader behavior.

 Concern for people:

 Deals with the people aspects of leader behavior.

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

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F17.1: The Leadership Grid

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

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Figure 17.2: Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s

Leadership Continuum

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

LPC Theory

 Suggests that the appropriate style of leadership varies with situational favorableness.

 Least preferred coworker (LPC)

 The measuring scale that asks leaders to describe the person with whom she/he is able to work least well.

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

LPC- 18 questions to determine your style

 This assessment asks you to think of one person with whom you could work least well.

 Rate on different dimensions (Helpful Vs.


 Scale 1 to 8

 “relationship-motivated" leader (Fielder)

 If your score is 73 or above

 "task-motivated" leader (Fielder)

 If your score is 64 or below

 You to determine which leadership style (Fielder)

 If your score is between 65 and 72, he leaves it up to

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU


Figure 17.3: The Least-Preferred

Coworker Theory of Leadership

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

The Path-Goal Theory

 A theory of leadership suggesting that the primary functions of a leader are to make valued or desired rewards available in the workplace.

 Clarifies for the subordinate the kinds of behavior that will lead to goal accomplishment and valued rewards.

 Here leaders can change their leadership style

(opposite of Fielder’s LPC Theory)

 Extension of “Expectancy theory” of motivation

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

The Path-Goal Framework

(A Situational Factor)




•Perceived ability

•Locus of control

Leader Behavior




•Achievement oriented

(A Situational Factor)



•Task structure

•Work group


Subordinates’ motivation to perform

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

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Decision Making Styles- Vroom’s Theory

Managers making decision

(Subordinate Participation Factor)



• Present problem to group members individually.



• Present problem to group members.


• Present to group and facilitate group member discussion.


• Allow group to define parameters, then develop solutions.

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Figure 17.6: Vroom’s

Development Driven

Decision Tree

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Figure 17.5: Vroom’s


Decision Tree

 Research

Studies Proved the effectiveness of this model

 New enhancements to this study is going on

The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)


 Stresses the importance of variable relationships between supervisors and each of their subordinates.


Subordinate 1 Subordinate 2 Subordinate 3 Subordinate 4



Higher Performance and satisfaction

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Subordinate 5

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Related Perspectives on Leadership

 Substitutes for leadership:

 Identifies situations in which leader behaviors are neutralized or replaced by characteristics of subordinates (Ability, experience, need for independence, professional orientation), the task

(routine, intrinsic satisfaction), and the organization

(group cohesion, inflexibility, reward power!).

 E.g. Emergency room supervisor, relief work,

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Related Perspectives on Leadership …

 Charismatic leadership:

 Assumes that charisma in an individual characteristic of the leader.

 Charisma: A form of interpersonal attraction that inspires support and acceptance.

 Self confidence, firm belief/ideas, need to influence people

 Larger than life (e.g. Donald Trump)

 Traits

 Envision the future

 Energize others (excitement, confidence, success)

 Support (Empathy, Confidence)

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Transformational Leadership

 Leadership that goes beyond ordinary expectations by

 transmitting a sense of mission

 stimulating learning experiences, and

 inspiring new ways of thinking.


Rapid Change and

Turbulent Environment

Compared to transactional leaders who motivate followers to work toward established goals by exchanging rewards for their productivity.

• Trusting subordinates

• Developing vision

• Keeping cool

• Encouraging risk

• An expert

• Inviting dissent

• Simplifying things

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Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Political Behavior in Organizations

 Political behavior

 Activities carried out for the specific purpose of acquiring, developing, and using power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes.

 Impact (believed)

 Salary, Promotion, Hiring

 Bad, unfair, irrational, unhealthy (55/45!)

 How?

 Inducement, persuasion, obligation, coercion

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

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Political Behavior in Organizations

 Impression management


 A direct and intentional effort by someone to enhance his/her image in the eyes of others.

 Career! (Make yourself look good)

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

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Managing Politics

 Be aware- actions might have a political tie

 Autonomy, responsibility, challenge, feedback

 Avoid using power (No charge)

 Get disagreement out in the open

 Avoid covert activities

 Common areas

 Performance evaluations

Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Easy List!