ethics.winter2011 - University of Toronto Scarborough

Ethics Defined…
• Ethics
– Social standards for what is right/wrong
• Morals
– Individual beliefs for what is right/wrong
• Prudent
– Efficacy of tactic on outcome and relationship
• Practical
– What can happen
• Legal
• Types of Ethical Standards
– End-result
– Duty- bound
– Social contract
– Personal-istic
Type of Ethics Rightness is defined by…
Basis of actions
End Results
-effect/consequences it has --Actions are aimed to promote
-utility of ends
(collective) happiness,
--Actions that promote more
happiness are more right
-obligations to apply
universal standards in all
-intentions of actor rather
than effects
--Customs or norms of a
One’s conscience
--Actions that promote virtue rather
than pleasure
--behaviour should be based on
--Community defines morality which
defines right & wrong
--Duty binds individual to community
--What is best for community is
ultimate standard
-stand up for what one believes
-no absolute formulas for living
• Ethics in Negotiation
– Truth telling tactics
• When to tell the truth, how much of the truth to
– Communication vs action
• What is truth?
– Based on social contract vs. personal conscience
• How are deviations from truth decided
• Examples of tactics
– Bluffing, exaggeration, concealing/manipulating info
– Negotiation involves depending on each
other for information
• Priorities, interests, preferences
Categories of Ethically Ambiguous Tactics
√ Competitive Bargaining
Not disclosing BATNA
Inflated opening offer
Fake emotions like anger, fear,
disappointment, elation, satisfaction
√ Emotional Manipulation
** Misrepresenting/Deception Distorting information/events when
describing to others
Misrepresenting opponent’s
Corrupting opponent’s reputation with
Inappropriate Information
Bribery, inflation, spying
Insincere threats/promises
• Misrepresenting Interests/Deception
– On common value items where both parties
seek the same outcome
• Omission--fail to disclose info benefitting others
• Commission – lying about common value issue
– Later make concession
– Omission > Comission
• Tolerance for Ethically Ambiguous
– Predicts intention to use
– Predicts actual use
– Frequency of use
• Hiding bottom line > exaggerating opening offer>
stalling for time, misrepresenting information >
making empty promises
– Hiding bottom line improved negotiator
• All others did not predict performance
• Why use deception
– Power (leverage) of having information
• View of negotiation as exchanging accurate &
truthful information / facts / arguments – and
whoever has the better argument etc wins
• Deceptive tactics used when other side is
uninformed and when stakes are high
– Maximize own outcome (competitive)
– Perceive other’s motive as being competitive
– Cultural predisposition to focus on own
Individual Differences
•Moral Development Stage
Intentions &
Motives to Use
•Past Experience
•Relationship to Opponent
•Relative Power b/w Negotiators
•Mode of communication
•Agent status
•Group & Org Norms
•Cultural Norms
Use of
•Effectiveness of Tactic
•Self Evaluation
•Feedback from Other Party,
Constituency & Audience
• How to detect deception?
– Intimidate the other to tell the truth
– Portray futility of deceptive tactic
– Help other reduce discomfort for deceiving
– Lie to suggest you have uncovered
– Encourage other to share information
– Minimize the importance of consequences of
– Point out contradictions and ask for
– Alter information dramatically so that other
can correct you
• How to detect deception? (cont’d)
• Try to get other to admit to a small lie and
push for admitting to larger lie
• Reveal dishonesty on your part
• Point out behaviors that suggest other party
is deceiving
• Indicate concern for other party’s welfare
• Appeal to other’s desire for a good reputation
• Directly ask other to tell the truth
• Remain silent to get other to talk…
• How to deal with deception
Ask probing questions
Phrase questions in different ways
Force the other party to lie/back off
Test the other party
Call the tactic
Ignore the Tactic
Discuss what you see and offer to help the
other party shift to more honest bheaviors
• Respond in Kind