Hatton_Family-CenteredServicesModule

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Family-Centered Practices:
Multimedia Resources for
Professional Development
2005 OSEP National Early Childhood Conference
February 9, 2005
Washington, D.C.
Deborah D. Hatton, Ph.D.
FPG Child Development Institute
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Purposes of Presentation
• Provide overview of Early Intervention
•
•
•
Training Center for Infants and Toddlers
With Visual Impairments
Review modules and multimedia CDs
being developed by the Center
Review curriculum and content for
preparing personnel to provide familycentered practices
Secure feedback on resources from
participants
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Early
Intervention
Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers
With
Visual
Impairments
Deborah D. Hatton, Ph.D.
FPG Child Development Institute
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
OSEP Cooperative
Agreement H325B000003
Early Intervention
Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With
Visual Impairments
Mission: To enhance the capacity
of universities to prepare personnel
to serve infants and toddlers with
visual impairments and their
families
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Modules Developed by EITC
• Family-Centered Practices
• Visual Conditions and Functional Vision:
•
•
•
•
Early Intervention Issues
Developmentally-Appropriate Orientation
and Mobility
Communication and Emergent Literacy
Assessment
Recommended and Evidence-Based
Intervention Practices
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
What is a module?
A course (2 to 3 semester hours of graduate
credit) consisting of five to seven sessions
Each session includes
• Introduction and objectives
• Knowledge synthesis (Major Points)
• List of instructor resources
• Suggested instructional sequence
• PowerPoint summarizing Major Points
• Quiz
• Video clips and self-check on CDs for
application of knowledge to practice
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Building a Module
• Literature review
• Professional standards
• Recommended practices
• Review of relevant products from other
projects
• University partner input
• Practitioner input
• Family/consumer input
• Expert input
 Visual impairment
 Early intervention
 Accessibility
 Technology
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Developing and implementing
• Field review process
• Module revision
• Field test process
• Module revision
• Module publication
• Dissemination
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Field Test Locations:
Family-Centered Practices
• University of Alabama at Birmingham
• University of Arizona
• Drake University, Iowa
• Florida State University
• Kutztown University
• North Carolina Central University
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Family-Centered Practices
Building Reliable Alliances
Session 1
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
Produced in collaboration with P.J. Winton (2003)
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
1. describe the legal basis for familycentered practices in the context of early
intervention.
2. identify and implement the key features
of family-centered practices: focusing on
family strengths, promoting family
choice, and collaborating with families
and other professionals while respecting
and honoring diversity within the context
of families, communities, and cultures.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1A
Objectives
3. describe the rationale for using familycentered practices and demonstrate the
ability to initiate and sustain a reliable
alliance with families based on effective helpgiving practices.
4. describe their overall philosophy for working
with families including the basic assumptions
and principles that guide their approach.
Develop self-awareness of personal values,
assumptions, and biases related to
childrearing and interactions with families and
understand how those affect relationships
with families and children.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1B
History of Early Intervention
Federal Legislation
•
•
1975 Public Law (PL) 94-142
The Education of the Handicapped Act guaranteed
free appropriate public education to children with
disabilities ages 5 to 21 years.
1986 PL 99-457
Extended PL 94-142 down to age 3 years due to an
urgent and substantial need to
• enhance development of infants/toddlers with
disabilities,
• reduce educational costs,
• minimize institutionalization,
• maximize independence, and
• enhance capacity of families to meet children's needs.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1C
IDEA Amendments of 1997 (PL 105-17)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Part C
Provided the legislative support for familycentered early intervention services for infants
and toddlers (0-3) with disabilities and their
families.
IDEA will probably be reauthorized in 2004.
Final regulations will be issued following
reauthorization. Be alert for changes in federal
legislation that affect early intervention in 2005.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1D
IDEA Amendments of 2004
Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act
•
•
Part C
Provides the legislative support for familycentered early intervention for infants and
toddlers (0-3) with disabilities and their
families.
Requires that families direct assessment of
their resources, priorities, and concerns.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1D
Goals of Part C of IDEA
• Enhance the development of infants and
toddlers with disabilities
• Reduce costs to society by minimizing need
for special education
• Minimize likelihood of institutionalization
and maximize independent living
• Enhance capacity of families to meet
children's needs
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1E
Family-Centered Support
• Reflects a way of coordinating and delivering
assistance, support, and services to families
with children who have disabilities that
enhances their capacity to care for their child
• Is based upon an understanding of the
complexity that exists within families and that
decisions and services will influence each
member of the family and the unit as a whole
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1F
Family Systems Theory
• Family systems theory provides a framework
•
•
for looking at families and their challenges.
Practitioners are most effective when they
view the context of each unique, individual
family and craft solutions that fit the family,
rather than making the family adapt to the
solution.
Practitioners who implement family systems
theory explore options with a family based
on their unique characteristics rather than
imposing options on a family.
Foster & Phillips, 1992
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1J
Central Values of the
Family-Centered Approach
• Emphasizing families’ strengths rather
than deficits
• Promoting family choice and control over
desired resources
• Developing collaborative relationships
between professionals and parents
• Viewing family from a holistic perspective
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1L
Shifting Assumptions
Child-centered
Family-centered
Standardized
Individualized
Doing to families
Doing with families
Specialized
Integrated
Fragmented
Coordinated
Multidisciplinary
Transdisciplinary
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1M
Family-Centered Practices:
Current Assumptions
• Family is constant in child’s life
• Collaboration at all levels is essential
• Cultural, racial, ethnic, socioeconomic diversity
are honored
• Family strengths are recognized and respected
• Unbiased information is shared continuously
• Networking and family-to-family support are
promoted
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Turnbull, Turbiville, & Turnbull, 2000
PowerPoint 1N
Family-Centered Practices:
Current Assumptions
• Expertise regarding developmental
needs of child is shared
• Systems are accessible, flexible,
culturally competent, responsive to
strengths/concerns identified by family
• Comprehensive programs for financial
and emotional support are available
Turnbull, Turbiville, & Turnbull, 2000
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1O
Establishing Reliable Alliances
The term reliable alliance has been used
by Turnbull and Turnbull (2001) to describe
a dynamic relationship between families
and professionals in which they
experience individual and collective
empowerment by sharing their resources
equally in order to make joint decisions.
Turnbull & Turnbull, 2001
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1P
Eight Obligations Involved in
Establishing Reliable Alliances
Reliable alliances involve the following eight
obligations.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Knowing yourself
Knowing families
Honoring cultural
diversity
Affirming and
building on family
strengths
5. Promoting family choices
6. Affirming great
expectations
7. Communicating
positively
8. Warranting trust and
respect
Turnbull & Turnbull, 2001, p. 58
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1Q
Diversity
Diversity refers to differences in individuals and
families across a variety of dimensions including
• culture, language, race, class, disability, age, and
gender.
• personal affiliations to religious and political groups
or belief.
• sexual orientation.
Family culture can affect any of the following:
• treatment of medical issues,
• primary language spoken within the home,
• literacy activities,
• interactive play (social skills), and
• daily routines.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Milian, 2000
PowerPoint 1V
Cultural Diversity
and Visual Impairment
Some cultures
• believe that caring for the child is more
important than teaching independence.
• expect adults with blindness/VI to hold
only certain jobs or not to work at all.
• value oral communication over the
written word.
• vary in their gender expectations.
• believe that specific types of VI have
special meaning.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Erin, 2002
PowerPoint 1X
Religious Diversity
and Visual Impairment
•
•
•
Many religions still think that visual
impairments result from retribution for sin.
For some families, religious leaders and
heads of family may be the critical decision
makers.
Many families visit religious healers during
their children’s early years.
Erin, 2002
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1Y
Cultural Reciprocity
According to Harry (as cited by Warger, 2001), families
And professionals must engage in a two-way process to
gain understanding and respect for each other’s values.
This two-way process is the basis for cultural reciprocity
and involves
• identifying cultural values,
• determining if you and the family are aware of each
others’ assumptions and how you differ,
• identifying and respecting cultural differences—
explaining and discussing cultural basis of
assumptions, and
• determining the best way to adjust recommendations
to match values.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1Z
Building Positive Relationships
With Families
• Respect the uniqueness of families
• Develop personalized, trustful relationships
• Consider cultural issues that influence
communication
• Recruit staff who value diversity
• Develop relationships with leaders of cultural
groups who serve as guides
• Evaluate outcomes and processes
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Bruns & Corso, 2001
PowerPoint 1AA
Consider Variations Within Cultures
Families vary in their adherence to cultural
norms based on
• Primary language in home and community
• Educational levels
• Religious affiliations
• Country of origin, length of time in U.S.,
degree of acculturation, current residence
• Income
Santos & Reese, 1999
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1BB
Families Within Cultures Vary
FCM 1-07
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
PowerPoint 1BB
Honoring Diversity
•
•
•
Examine personal biases, values, and
past experiences and how they may
impact interactions with families.
Be sensitive to families’ reactions to
disability within the context of the family,
community, and culture.
Get to know and appreciate families and
their perspectives, strengths, needs, and
concerns.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Family-Centered Practices
Teams and Service Coordination
Session 2
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
Produced in collaboration with P.J. Winton and R.A. McWilliam (2002)
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
1. identify, observe, and describe factors that
contribute to effectively functioning teams.
2. contrast three team models and cite the
advantages and disadvantages of each.
3. recognize families as key members of
teams and describe factors that contribute
to family participation on early intervention
teams.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
4. identify, observe, and describe the possible
collaborative roles of TVIs on early
intervention teams. Identify their own
strengths and areas of potential growth
regarding teamwork and collaboration.
5. describe the potential roles of the official
service coordinator and the required
elements of service coordination.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Effective Early Intervention Teams
•
•
•
•
•
Members understand
and accept the mission,
purpose, and goals.
•
Members have
appropriate training,
skills, and experience.
•
Members practice
open communication.
•
Organizational support
is available.
•
Leadership is identified.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Effective problemsolving strategies are
utilized.
Members have high
standards and
evaluation methods.
Trust and support are
evident.
Sufficient time and
resources are available.
Briggs, 1993
Ecology of a Team
Organizational Organizational
Resources
Structures
TEAM
Individual
Characteristics
Relationships
Organizational Culture
Political & Community Factors
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Effective Communication Strategies
• Start with general questions and statements.
• Offer support; follow through on
commitments; listen empathetically.
• Restate key components; listen actively.
• Seek clarification.
• Practice nonverbal communication and
passive listening.
• Summarize information.
• Model effective communication.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Factors that make it difficult for
parents to feel a part of a team:
Parents may feel estranged from
the team when they are
• not involved in planning stages,
• not given meaningful roles,
• not prepared for meetings, or
• not supported in their involvement.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Factors that make it difficult for
parents to feel a part of a team:
Parents may feel estranged from
the team when professionals
• discount parent perspectives or priorities,
• see the child from single discipline’s
perspective, or
• are not sensitive to the fact that they
can be intimidating.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Increasing Family Involvement
in IFSP Development
When parents
• participated in a developmental
assessment,
• recorded their family profile, and
• met with a school or community liaison,
the meeting that followed resulted in the
parents
• presenting their goals and concerns first,
• suggesting more goals, and
• making more decisions.
Brinckerhoff & Vincent, 1987
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Effective team members
• approach early intervention from a
transdisciplinary perspective in partnership
with service agencies and families,
• know how to find information, and
• are critical thinkers and life-long learners
who seek innovative solutions.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Involving Families in Teams
FCM 2-06
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Collaborative Team Meetings
FCM 2-02
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Service Coordination as Defined by IDEA
• Service coordinators support families of
•
•
infants and toddlers with disabilities who are
eligible for services.
They do so by assisting and enabling the
child and family to receive the rightful
services, including procedural safeguards,
authorized by the state’s early intervention
program.
While supporting families when needed,
service coordinators also encourage families
to become self-directed and empowered so
they acquire the skills required for life-long
advocacy for their child.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Family-Centered Practices
Support-Based Early Intervention
and Developing Ecomaps
Session 3
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
Produced in collaboration with R.A. McWilliam (2002)
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
1. describe why all high-quality early
intervention practices are considered
support; contrast support and services; and
describe the three types of support that
should be provided to families by early
interventionists.
2. discuss the importance of focusing on family
strengths.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
3. describe why a TVI in early intervention is
interested in family members, friends, and
other natural supports.
4. demonstrate the completion of an ecomap
and describe its advantages.
5. describe how teachers of children with
visual impairments (TVIs) work in
collaboration with other professionals in the
early intervention system to provide support
to families.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Early intervention is best
described as a system of
supports that enhances the
capacity of families to meet
the special needs of their
children with disabilities.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Services Versus Support
• Services: specific, discrete
activities intended to meet
specific, discrete needs
• Support: providing or
coordinating resources to
meet a family’s needs
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Early intervention is the process of
providing support, not just services.
Describing early intervention simply as the
provision of services is limiting and inaccurate.
• It suggests first that the professional’s
activities, rather than the family’s own actions,
account for progress and positive change
within a family and the child.
• It leads to the notion that every need requires
a service.
• It leads to the belief that more is better in
terms of number of services and frequency of
contacts.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Support-Based Intervention
McWilliam and Scott (2001) identified
three primary types of support provided
by early interventionists:
• emotional support,
• material support, and
• informational support.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Emotional Support
Emotionally supportive, family-centered
practitioners have the following characteristics:
• positiveness,
• responsiveness,
• orientation to the whole family,
• friendliness,
• sensitivity,
• competence with and about children, and
• competence with and about
communities.
McWilliam et al., 1998
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Material Support
Families cannot carry out interventions if their
needs for food, shelter, and security are not met.
Sometimes children with VI require specialized
materials and environmental modifications such
as task lighting, optical aids, or brightly colored
objects to enhance participation in daily routines.
Examples
• Equipment and supplies
• Information about
resources, including
financial resources
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Informational Support
Families whose child has a visual impairment
report concerns about the future and a need
for information about
• child development,
• child’s visual condition,
• services and resources, and
• specific strategies and skills.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Leyser & Heinze, 2001
Families are the key to
effective early intervention.
•
•
•
•
Family members are the child’s primary
sources of nurturance, lifelong advocates,
and key decision makers.
Family members know the child better than
anyone else.
Family members are the ones who will be
most effective at implementing suggestions.
In order to implement family-centered
support effectively, professionals must look
for strengths in families.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Focusing on Family
and Child Strengths
• When emphasis is on strengths rather than
•
•
•
deficits, the family is empowered.
Fewer professional services may be required
when a strengths-based approach is used.
Collaboration between family and service
providers is enhanced when professionals
recognize and value existing strengths.
The knowledge, skills, and talents of both the
child and family should be considered in
intervention planning and implementation.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Support-Based Early Intervention
and the Family Ecology
•
•
•
In addition to support from professionals,
families obtain support from relatives and
friends, neighbors, coworkers, and groups
with which they are associated.
The system of supports that families have
is part of the family ecology.
By knowing about the family ecology, the
TVI can make suggestions that ensure
that family priorities are met with existing
resources whenever feasible.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
What’s the best time to ask
about the family ecology?
• If family members are interested, the initial
•
intake visit is the preferred time to learn
about the family ecology.
This can be postponed, however, if
 the family seems uncomfortable sharing
this personal information so early in the
relationship, or
 the intake procedures preclude learning
about the family ecology.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Purposes of the Intake Visit
• Establish rapport with the family.
• Convey information about the program.
• Determine family’s primary concerns.
• Inform family of
•
•
their rights.
Secure permission
to conduct
assessments.
Learn about the
family ecology.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Methods of Learning
About the Family Ecology
•
•
•
•
Interviews and questionnaires
Observation
Community resource mapping
Ecomaps
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
What is an ecomap?
• A visual depiction of the family’s informal,
formal, and intermediate system of supports
• Completed during informal dialogue between
family and early interventionist or TVI—may
take about 15 minutes
• Preferably completed during intake visit, but
can be completed whenever family seems
comfortable with sharing the information
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Developing an Ecomap
FCM 3-09
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Family-Centered Practices
Eligibility and
Routines-Based Assessment
Session 4
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
Developed in Collaboration with R.A. McWilliam, 2002
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
1. describe the eligibility criteria (established
condition, developmental delay, atypical
development, or being at risk for
developmental delay) for children entering
Part C of IDEA.
2. describe what IDEA says about
multidisciplinary assessment and
assessment of the child’s current level of
functioning.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
3. describe the difference between evaluation
for eligibility and assessment for
intervention planning.
4. describe what IDEA says about the
assessment of families’ priorities and
concerns as related to their capacity to
meet the developmental needs of the child.
Describe the difference between
assessment of families’ needs and priorities
and assessment of families.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
5. contrast the benefits and drawbacks of
questionnaires and interviews to assess
families' priorities.
6. describe the rationale for routines-based
assessment (RBA) and identify and
demonstrate sensitive and appropriate
interactions with families in the process of
RBA. Review major concerns and help
parents select their priorities.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
7. identify and demonstrate the six questions
to ask caregivers in the context of each
routine.
8. describe the role of the TVI in determining
eligibility and conducting an RBA.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Evaluation for Eligibility
Does the child qualify for early
intervention based on the eligibility
criteria?
Or more simply,
Is the child in or out of early
intervention?
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Eligibility Criteria
• Established disability or “condition”
• Developmental delay
• Atypical development
• At risk for developmental delay due to
biological and/or environmental factors
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Multidisciplinary Assessment
• Once eligibility is established, IDEA requires
•
•
that the child’s current level of functioning be
determined by a multidisciplinary
assessment. Two or more professionals from
at least two disciplines must participate in the
multidisciplinary assessment to determine
current level of functioning.
A functional vision assessment may be
performed as part of the multidisciplinary
assessment.
The purpose of the multidisciplinary
assessment is to identify the unique
strengths and needs of the child.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Current Level of Functioning
• Current level of functioning describes
cognitive, communication, motor, socialemotional, and adaptive/self-help skills.
• Some states accept a descriptive narrative
of current level of functioning.
• Current level of functioning is a required
component of the IFSP.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Routines-Based Assessment
A process whereby families
• share their concerns and
• identify priorities for early intervention
within the context of everyday activities
and routines, thereby assuring that early
intervention occurs within natural
environments.
This process is more comprehensive than
either questionnaires or interviews.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
What are routines?
• Routines are the everyday or frequently
occurring events needed to maintain family life.
• Routines occur in the family’s natural
environments.
• Routines reflect cultural and personal values,
vary from day to day, appear chaotic or rigid,
may be organized or disorganized, and may
reflect a family’s goals.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Bernheimer & Keogh, 1995
Benefits of the RBA
The routines-based assessment
• emphasizes that intervention is family-centered,
• provides a structure for families to have a
meaningful role in planning,
• generates a list of functional intervention
outcomes, and
• aids in developing a positive relationship with
families.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Components of an RBA
•
•
•
Routines-based interview
An early interventionist interviews the family
about daily routines and how the child and
family interact during those routines.
Identification of concerns
From the interview, family members generate
a list of concerns they would like to
address.
Prioritization of concerns
Family members prioritize the list of concerns
so that their most immediate concerns
become outcomes for intervention planning.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Steps to Ensure an Effective
Routines-Based Assessment
1. Prepare: Think about routines and logistics;
devote full attention to planning.
2. Listen: Conduct the routines-based
interview; learn about daily routines;
highlight the family’s concerns.
3. Summarize: Identify major concerns; ask
family members what they would like to
work on; assist family in prioritizing these
potential outcomes.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Interviewing Skills
• Be friendly: Make an effort to put the family
at ease.
• Relax: Don’t go through a checklist of
questions.
• Show real interest: Your goal is to learn
about and support this family.
• Empathize: Don’t be poker-faced.
• Accept: Don’t judge.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
The Routines-Based
Assessment: Getting Ready
• Before the interview, encourage the family
to think about their daily routines.
• When appropriate, arrange to have childcare
providers from outside the family report on
routines.
• Keep eligibility evaluations separate from
intervention planning assessments.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
RBI Overview
• Families report on their routines first.
• Staff from childcare settings report on
routines.
• Specialists ask questions.
• Specialists and staff withhold giving advice.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Routines-Based Assessment
1. Go through each routine.
2. Get a sense of family’s and child’s functioning
using the six questions that will follow.
3. Write down significant information.
4. Highlight concerns.
5. Recap concerns with the family, showing
them the highlighted items.
6. Ask what the family would like to concentrate
on.
7. Write down these potential outcomes.
8. Help family determine priority order.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Introducing RBA
FM 4-03
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Six Questions About Each Routine
1. What does everyone else do?
Home: other family members?
Classroom: other children?
2. What does the child do?
3. Engagement
How and how much
does the child participate in the routine?
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Six Questions About Each Routine
4. Independence
What does the child
do without assistance?
5. Social relationships
How does the child
communicate and get along with others?
6. How satisfied is the caregiver with the
routines?
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Family-Centered Practices
Developing Functional Outcomes
and the IFSP Process
Session 5
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
Developed in Collaboration with R.A. McWilliam (2003)
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
1. identify and describe the benefits and
required components of an individualized
family service plan (IFSP).
2. describe the importance of functional
outcomes and strategies for children and
families. Describe functionality for very
young children—engagement,
independence, and social relationships
within daily activities and routines.
3. describe the importance of assessing
current level of functioning in developing
functional outcomes.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
4. describe the role of the team in developing
the IFSP according to IDEA(2004).
5. describe the process by which the IFSP is
monitored and reviewed.
6. use ecomaps and routines-based
assessment (RBA) to identify functional
outcomes and strategies and the natural
environments in which they are most likely
to be implemented.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
7.
develop a successful IFSP that includes
functional outcomes; strategies for
achieving the outcomes; specification of
any necessary early intervention services
and supports; and requirements for
coordination and accountability.
8. describe the transition process from Part C
(infant and toddler) to Part B (preschool)
services.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
9. describe the structure of effective and
efficient IFSP meetings, including
preparing families.
10. describe differences between an IFSP and
an individualized education program (IEP).
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Benefits of the IFSP
• Family-centered: focuses on the family’s
•
•
•
•
•
concerns and priorities—a dynamic process
and document that guides early intervention
Contains procedural safeguards
Provides a holistic plan to assure that
outcomes are achieved in a timely manner
Requires service coordination
Requires that two or more professionals from
at least two disciplines are involved in
assessment and in development of the IFSP
Requires that meetings are accessible and
convenient for families
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
IFSP: Eight Required Components
1. Statement of current levels of functioning
2. Statement of the family’s resources,
priorities, and concerns
3. Statement of the major outcomes, criteria,
procedures, and timelines
4. Statement of early intervention services
including the frequency, intensity, and
method of delivering services
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
IFSP: Eight Required Components
5. Statement of the natural environments
in which services will be provided
6. Statement of the projected dates for the
initiation and duration of services
7. Identification of the service coordinator
8. Description of the transition plan for the
transition to preschool services
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Natural Environments
• According to IDEA (2004), early intervention
•
•
services should be provided in natural
environments.
Natural environments are defined as settings
and activities that are typical for the child’s
peers of the same age who do not have
delays or disabilities.
Natural environments include childcare
centers, playgroups in public facilities,
parks and recreation centers, festivals, retail
establishments, and other community settings.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Family Resources,
Priorities, and Concerns
Use the ecomap (Session 3) and
routines-based interview (Session 4)
• to identify family
 resources,
 priorities, and
 concerns.
• to identify the natural environments
in which intervention will occur.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Meaningful descriptions of the child’s
current level of functioning promote
development of functional outcomes.
• Describe the child’s current level of
•
functioning in terms of the child's
engagement (participation), independence,
and social relationships in everyday
activities.
Typically, the current level of functioning
contains information from the
multidisciplinary assessment.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Meaningful descriptions of the child’s
current level of functioning promote
development of functional outcomes.
• Information from the RBA is incorporated into
•
the current level of functioning.
The TVI may use information from the FVA,
orientation and mobility assessments, and the
RBA to help develop descriptions of current
levels of functioning.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Functional Outcomes
For a very young child, functionality
means
• engagement,
• independence, and
• social relationships.
McWilliam, 2005
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Engagement
Engagement means
developmentally and
contextually
appropriate
interactions with the
environment,
including adults,
peers, and materials.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Social Relationships
Social relationships provide motivation and serve
as the foundation for learning and competence.
Social development involves
•
•
•
•
•
•
forming relationships
(attachment),
communicating,
developing trust,
adapting to new situations,
interacting with peers (parallel,
associative, cooperative play), and
forming friendships.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
IFSP development is a team effort.
•
•
•
•
The IFSP team agrees on functional
outcomes and the strategies needed to
achieve them.
The IFSP team determines who will provide
support and services.
The IFSP team determines the timelines for
achieving the outcomes.
If the team plans to provide transdisciplinary
services, the primary home visitor (and
possibly the service coordinator) can be
identified during the IFSP meeting.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Multidisciplinary
Versus Transdisciplinary
•
•
•
Part C regulations of IDEA (2004) specify
that in order to assure that more than one
discipline is involved, a multidisciplinary
team must complete assessments and
collaborate with families to develop the IFSP.
Transdisciplinary models can also be used
to fulfill the mandate.
Increasingly, the transdisciplinary model is
recommended for providing early intervention
support and services.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
The IFSP is a living document.
• Most programs require that the IFSP
be reviewed every 6 months, as
required by law.
• It may be desirable to review the IFSP
on a quarterly basis—particularly since
young children may change quickly.
• The schedule for review will determine
the projected dates for initiation and
duration of services.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Services on the IFSP must be
related to needs identified in the
multidisciplinary assessment.
The team should decide on services based
on the outcomes—not on the diagnosis.
• Just because the child has a deficit in a given
area, it doesn't mean that it’s a priority for the
family.
• Just because a family chooses an outcome, it
doesn't necessarily mean that a service is
needed for that outcome to be met.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Suggestions for Writing
Meaningful Descriptions of the
Child’s Current Level of Functioning
• Balance positive statements about the
child's functioning with straightforward
statements about the child's needs.
• Focus on functional needs in daily routines
rather than on test performance.
• Use language that a layperson would
understand; avoid professional jargon.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Outcome Selection
• The concerns identified by the family during
the RBA are reviewed.
• The family selects 6 to 10 outcomes (goals).
• Team members, including the family, suggest
outcomes based upon the multidisciplinary
assessment and integrate them into the
family outcomes.
• The family and other team members put
outcomes into priority order.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Writing Functional Outcomes
The most important point about outcome
writing is that outcomes should be worded
directly, simply, and measurably.
•
•
•
It should be clear what the child is
learning to do.
It should be understood by everyone
involved.
It should be clear how to determine
when the outcome has been achieved.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Identifying Strategies and
Specifying Supports and Services
•
•
•
Strategies are actions that will be taken to
achieve the functional outcomes specified
in the IFSP.
Strategies should fit into the family’s daily
routines and meet family priorities.
After outcomes and strategies have been
identified, the team specifies the supports
and services needed to achieve the
outcomes, including the frequency, intensity,
and method of delivering services.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Identifying Natural
Environments and Initiation
and Duration of Services
•
•
The IFSP must identify the natural
environments in which support will be
provided or a rationale for why support was
not provided in a natural environment.
The IFSP must specify the projected dates
for initiation and duration of services.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Support for Transitions
from Part C to Part B Services
• When the child is between 24 and 30 months
•
•
•
of age, professionals should begin preparing
the family for the transition from infant/toddler
services (Part C) to preschool services (Part
B).
The family should be offered options for
resources to meet their goals for their child.
The family may want to visit as many options
as they can.
The family may need to be prepared for the
shift from a focus on the family to a focus on
the child.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Planning Effective IFSP Meetings
• Prepare families for the meeting.
• Set the time and location based on the family’s
preferences.
• Promote communication among all from intake
onward.
• Treat all with warmth and respect.
• Promote participation by all in the meeting.
• Encourage everyone to provide input.
• Remember that the IFSP meeting is a team
process.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Implementing Effective IFSP Meetings
• Begin with introductions.
• Review family concerns and priorities.
• Review child and family strengths.
• Describe child’s current level of functioning.
• Review and prioritize family members’
concerns.
• Use concerns as a basis for developing
•
functional outcomes that can be incorporated
into the context of daily routines across
natural environments.
Write outcomes in measurable, easy-tounderstand terms.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Family-Centered Practices
Effective Home Visits
Session 6
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
Early Intervention Training Center for
FPG Child Development Institute
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute Developed in Collaboration with R.A. McWilliam,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
2003
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
1. identify the major goals of home visits:
providing informational, material, and
emotional support that promotes functional
outcomes based on family priorities within
the context of daily routines.
2. describe the importance of developing an
awareness of cultural diversity and cultural
reciprocity.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
3. describe the rationale for a transdisciplinary,
collaborative, routines-based approach to
home visits; the difference between regular
home visits and consultative home visits
within the transdisciplinary approach; and
the role of the TVI in each.
4. use modeling appropriately to facilitate the
acquisition of functional outcomes.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
5. structure home visits around family priorities
in order to promote the acquisition of
functional outcomes for the child and family
within the context of daily routines and
activity settings.
6. identify situations in which outside
assistance must be sought.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Major Goal of Home Visits
Providing support to
families is the foundation
for effective home visits.
Three types of support
early interventionists can
provide include:
• emotional,
• material, and
• informational.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Communication Barriers
Family
•
•
Lack of resources
(e.g., time and
money)
Current emotional
response (e.g.,
grieving)
Professional
• Lack of experience
working with families
•
Negative attitude
toward family
Berry & Hardman, 1998
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Cultural Awareness
• To be effective early interventionists and to
•
accomplish the goals of the home visit, TVIs
must develop cultural awareness and
respect for diversity.
Service providers may consider following a
four-step process that will help them
develop cultural reciprocity (Harry, as cited
by Warger, 2001). Cultural reciprocity refers
to a two-way process by which people from
different cultures find mutual ground through
sharing information about values and
culture, to communicate effectively.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Cultural Reciprocity
According to Harry (as cited by Warger, 2001),
professionals and families must engage in a
twoway process to gain understanding and respect for
each others’ values. This process is the basis for
cultural reciprocity and involves
• identifying cultural values,
• determining if you and the family are aware of
•
•
each others’ assumptions, and of how you differ,
identifying and respecting cultural differences—
explaining and discussing the cultural basis of
assumptions, and
determining the best way to adjust
recommendations to match the family’s values.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Models of Service Delivery
Multidisciplinary
Interdisciplinary
Transdisciplinary
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Each specialist works
independently from
assessment to intervention.
Specialists share findings of
their assessments and plan
outcomes together with the
family but implement their
own intervention programs.
One primary specialist or
generalist is responsible for
outcomes and collaborates
with specialists to provide
intervention.
Advantages of Transdisciplinary
Approach
• Almost all child-level intervention occurs
•
•
•
•
between visits.
Almost all interventions can be
implemented in
the context of family routines and daily
activities.
Infants and toddlers cannot generalize skills
that early interventionists introduce.
Not every need requires a service.
More is not necessarily better.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Components of Collaboration
• Empower regular caregivers to meet the
child’s individual needs.
• Treat regular caregivers with respect and
as full members of the team.
• Confer with specialists and other service
providers to develop and implement an
integrated and comprehensive intervention
plan.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Outcomes of Effective Collaboration
• Routines-based, family-centered assessment
•
•
and intervention planning
 Family discusses its routines and needs
 Staff members discuss classroom routines
(if appropriate)
 Family identifies priorities
Functional outcomes tied to routines, family
priorities, and needs
Primary service provider/home visitor model
(Transdisciplinary approach)
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Roles of Home Visitors
•
•
•
•
Primary Home Visitor
Responsible for regular
weekly home visits
Responsible for securing
formation from specialists
and incorporating it into
integrated strategies for
functional outcomes
Responsible for IFSP
development,
implementation,
monitoring
Responsible for transition
planning
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
•
•
•
Consultant
Identifies priorities from
primary home visitor
while formulating
recommendations
related to visual
impairment
Makes joint visits with
primary home visitor
Provides technical
assistance to primary
home visitor and direct
service to child and
family through joint
home visits
Structuring the Home Visit
•
•
•
General well-being
New questions or
concerns
Review of outcomes
in priority order
Problematic
routines
Other family
members
Appointments
•
Workload
•
•
•
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
How have things been going?
Do you have anything new you
want to ask me about?
How have things been going
with [priority #1]?
Is there a time of day that is
not going well?
How is [family member]
doing?
Have you had any
appointments?
Do you have enough or too
much intervention to do
with [your child]?
Recommended Practices
for Home Visits
• Collaborate with families and with other
•
•
•
specialists and service providers.
Use routines-based intervention to achieve
functional outcomes.
Use a transdisciplinary model with a primary
home visitor.
Ensure the primary home visitor collaborates
with other specialists and service providers.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Collaborative Approach
FM 6-02
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Promoting functional outcomes
involves
• empowering regular caregivers to make
•
their own decisions to achieve their priorities
and meet the child’s individual needs.
fostering important functional domains
of child development:
 engagement,
 independence, and
 social relationships.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Family-Centered Practices
VI-Specific Issues
Session 7
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
Produced in collaboration with R. A. McWilliam and P.J. Winton (2002)
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
1. describe issues and strategies that will
assist TVIs as they build reliable alliances
and implement family-centered practices.
2. describe the strategies that TVIs use as
members of teams to effectively
communicate and collaborate with families
and other professionals, identify the
benefits of the transdisciplinary method of
service delivery, and describe the
responsibilities of the service coordinator.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
3. describe the three types of support that are
important for families of young children with
visual impairments and explain the
advantages of developing an ecomap (a
graphic representation of a family’s existing
supports).
4. describe the criteria for eligibility for Part C
services under IDEA (2004) and the rationale
for family-centered, routines-based
assessment and identification of the family’s
priorities, strengths, and concerns.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
Objectives
After completing this session, participants will
5. identify the eight required components of
individualized family service plans (IFSPs)
and strategies for developing functional
IFSP outcomes and assuring smooth
transitions from Part C to Part B services.
6. contrast the roles of TVIs who serve as
primary home visitors to those of TVIs who
serve as consultants to primary home
visitors and families.
Early Intervention Training Center for
Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
FPG Child Development Institute
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
February 2005
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