Elizabeth Brownlow Control Factor Causation Type of Care Scientific Revolution vs. Puritan theology “American” identity vs. English roots 1) Supernatural vs. Natural causation 2) Determinism vs. Free Will 3) Body vs. Mind 4) Punitive vs. Humane Treatment Puritan theology Sin brings illness Cotton Mather (Spurgeon) • Revivalist mentality • God as deliverance from malady Jonathan Edwards (International Outreach) Charles Finney (Johnson) Shift from family-based care to institution-based care Scientific Revolution Pennsylvania Hospital (Anderson) • Pennsylvania Hospital • Benjamin Rush Benjamin Rush Engraving (Erekson) God’s will vs. Free will The “idiot”: Religious use of the 1) Pure and innocent nature 2) Spiritually incompetent/estranged from God’s kingdom image of the mentally abnormal Faculty Psychology Self control of the “Animal Spirits” Rational Sensitive “The passions” Vegetative Benjamin Franklin (Wikiquote) Benjamin Rush’s Medical Inquiries and Observations on the Diseases of the Mind Madness in the blood Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the diseases of the mind, Title page and p. 18 (John Adams Library) Blood-related practices - Bloodletting - Purgative application - Emetic usage • Rush’s Inventions Benjamin Rush’s Tranquilizing Chair (University of Pennsylvania) The Gyrator (Bloom and Schaffer) Previously inhumane Humane intentions treatments used Justification: No public humiliation or social punishment Public treatment still subhuman as well Humane improvements Reflective of Ambivalence in American society Benton, Josiah. Warning out in New England. Boston: WB Clarke Co., 1911. Hathitrust. Web. Dain, Norman. “Madness and the Stigma of Sin in American Christianity.” Stigma and Mental Illness. Eds. Paul Fink and Allan Tasman. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1992. 73-84. Print. Deporte, Michael V. Nightmares and Hobbyhorses: Swift, Sterne, and Augustan Ideas of Madness. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1974. Print. Deutsch, Albert. The Mentally Ill in America: A History of Their Care and Treatment from Colonial Times. New York: Columbia UP, 1946. University Library. Web. Edwards, Jonathan. The Life of David Brainerd: Missionary to the Indians; With an Abridgement of his Diary and Journal. 2nd ed. Ed. John Styles. London: F. Westley, 1820. Hathitrust. Web. ---. “Religious Affections.” Selected Writings of Jonathan Edwards. 2nd ed. Ed. Harold P. Simonson. Long Grove:Waveland Press, 2004. 123-130. Print. Eldridge, Larry D. “Crazy Brained: Mental Illness in Colonial America.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 70.3 (1996): 361-386.Web. 24 Apr. 2014. Finney, Charles G. Lectures on Revivals of Religion. 6th ed. New York: Leavitt, Lord, and Co., 1835. Hathitrust. Web. Franklin, Benjamin. Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography. Norton Critical ed. Ed. Joyce E. Chaplin. New York: Norton, 2012. Print. Grob, Gerald N. Mental Institutions in America: Social Policy to 1875. New York: Free Press, 1973. Print. Hartley, David. Observations on Man, His Frame, His Duty, and His Expectations.Vol.1. London: W. Eyres, 1801. Hathitrust. Web. Hinshaw, Stephen. The Mark of Shame: Stigma of Mental Illness and an Agenda for Change. New York: Oxford UP, 2007. Print. Katz, Irwin. Stigma: A Social Psychological Analysis. Hillsadale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1981. Print. Mather, Cotton. The Angel of Bethesda: An Essay Upon the Common Maladies of Mankind. Ed. Gordon W. Jones. Barre: American Antiquarian Society, 1972. Print. ---. Magnalia Christi Americana: The Ecclesiastical History of New England, From Its First Planting in the Year 1620, Unto the Year of Our Lord, 1698. Hartford: Silas Andrus, 1829. Hathitrust. Web. Rush, Benjamin. Medical Inquiries and Observations on the Diseases of the Mind. 4th ed. Ed. John Grigg. Philadelphia: John Grigg, 1830. Hathitrust. Web. Tindol, Robert. “Getting the Pox Off All Their Houses: Cotton Mather and the Rhetoric of Puritan Science.” Early American Literature 46.1 (2011):1-23. Web. 19 Apr. 2014. Wendell, Barrett. Cotton Mather: The Puritan Priest. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1891. Hathitrust. Web. Wickham, Parnel. “Conceptions of Idiocy in Colonial Massachusetts.” Journal of Social History 35.4 (2002): 935-954. Web.