It's Alive--Snow Day PowerPOint

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Objectives
• To differentiate between food infection and
food intoxication.
• To identify causes of the growth and spread
of harmful bacteria.
• To summarize consumer steps to prevent
foodborne illness.
• To outline various types of illness and
infection causing agents.
2
Main Menu
Introduction
Types of Foodborne Illnesses
Preventing Foodborne Illnesses
3
4
Food Safety
• Is the scientific discipline describing the
handling, preparation and storage of food in
ways which prevent foodborne illness
• Is the responsibility of producers,
processors and the consumer
5
Food Safety
• Is highly regulated and effectively executed
by both producers and processors
• Can become a concern when the consumer
forgets to perform proper food handling
procedures
6
Microorganisms
• Are tiny organisms which can only be seen
individually using a microscope
• Require moisture, a food source, time and
appropriate temperatures to grow
• Can be found everywhere
and are classified into
three categories:
o beneficial microorganisms
o spoilage microorganisms
o pathogenic microorganisms
7
Beneficial Microorganisms
• Serve needed functions in the body and
environment
• Can be used to make certain foods, such
as:
o cheese
o yogurt
o summer sausage
8
Spoilage Microorganisms
• Cause food to spoil, giving the food an off
flavor, odor or appearance
• Do not typically cause illness in humans
9
Pathogenic Microorganisms
• Are harmful microorganisms
• Cause diseases such as foodborne
illnesses, influenza, strep throat
and other illnesses
Pathogenic microorganisms are
commonly called pathogens.
10
Foodborne Illness
• Is also referred to as food poisoning
• Is the result of ingesting pathogenic
microorganisms or their toxins
• Causes one to feel sick and exhibit various
symptoms
• Is a collective term for
the two types of illness:
o food infection
o toxin-mediated infections
11
Food Infections
• Occur when one ingests food containing
live, pathogenic microorganisms which
grow in the intestinal tract and result in
illness
• Can be caused by
microorganisms such as:
o Salmonella spp.
o Listeria monocytogenes
o Campylobacter jejuni
12
Food Intoxications
• Occur when one eats food containing toxins
which cause the illness
– toxins are produced by harmful
microorganisms, the result of a chemical
contamination or are naturally a part of the
plant or seafood
13
Food Intoxications
• Can be caused by
microorganisms such as:
o Staphylococcus aureus
o Clostridium botulinum
o Bacillus cereus
o Clostridium perfringens
14
Toxin-Mediated Infections
• Occur when one eats food containing
harmful bacteria and while in the intestinal
tract, the bacteria produce toxins which
cause the illness
• Can be caused by the
following:
– Shigella spp.
– Shiga toxin-producing
Escherichia coli
15
Bacterial Counts
• Which cause illness differ for each bacteria
– some bacteria require higher numbers to be
consumed to make an individual ill
– the more bacteria consumed, the more likely a
person is to get sick
16
Vulnerable Populations
• Include:
o senior citizens
o pregnant women
o young children
o individuals with compromised immune systems
such as those suffering from the following:
•
•
•
•
•
cancer
diabetes
liver disease
HIV
AIDS
17
Foodborne Illnesses
• Are most commonly
caused by mishandling
food in one or more of
the following ways:
o time-temperature
abuse
o cross-contamination
o improper cooking or
handling procedures
o contamination after cooking
18
Temperature
• Is an important component in the prevention
of bacteria growth
• Should be regulated during both food
storage and food preparation
19
Food Storage Temperatures
• Reduce the rate of bacterial growth
• Include:
o below 40°F (4°C) for cold products
o above 140°F (60°C) for hot products
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Temperature Danger Zone
(TDZ)
• Is between 40°F (4°C) and
140°F (60°C)
• Is the range in which most
foodborne pathogenic
microorganisms reproduce
at an exponential rate
Food held for more than four hours in
the temperature danger zone should be
discarded.
21
Temperature Danger Zone
(TDZ)
• Can be avoided by:
o properly cooking all foods
o heating foods to the proper temperature before
serving
o keeping foods above 140°F
(60°C) while serving
o quickly cooling all food
products
22
Cross-Contamination
• Is the transfer of
pathogenic bacteria
between foods due to
unwashed hands, kitchen
equipment or utensils
• Can occur when purchasing,
storing, preparing or serving
foods
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Assessment
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Assessment
1. Which of the following is a disease causing organism?
A. Pathogen
B. Antibiotic
C. Antigen
D. Pandemic
2. Which of the following occurs when one eats food containing
harmful bacteria and while in the intestinal tract, the bacteria
produce toxins which cause an illness?
A. Food infection
B. Food intoxication
C. Foodborne intoxication
D. Toxin-mediated infection
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Assessment
3. What is the illness called when one ingests food which contains
live pathogenic microorganisms which grow in the human
intestine?
A. Food infection
B. Food intoxication
C. Foodborne illness
D. Clostridium botulin
4. How can the Temperature Danger Zone be avoided?
A. Keeping foods above 140°F (60°C) while serving
B. Keeping foods above 160°F (71°C) while serving
C. Cooling foods to the proper temperature before serving
D. Quickly heating all food products
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Assessment
5. The Temperature Danger Zone can be avoided in all of the
following ways EXCEPT?
A. Heating foods to the proper temperature before serving
B. Keeping foods above 140°F (60°C) while serving
C. Quickly cooling all food products
D. Allowing foods to reach room temperature prior to
storage
27
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Common Foodborne Infections
Illness
Perfringens Food Poisoning
Causative Agent
Clostridium perfringens, bacteria
Symptoms
Nausea; occasional vomiting; abdominal pain;
diarrhea
Time of Onset
8 to 24 hours after consumption
Food Usually
Involved
Cooked meat, poultry and fish held at non
refrigerated temperatures for long periods of
time
Preventative
Measures
Prompt refrigeration of unconsumed cooked
meat, gravy and fish; maintenance of
refrigeration equipment; sanitation
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Common Foodborne Infections
Illness
Salmonellosis
Causative
Agent
Salmonella spp., over 1,200 species of
Salmonella cause illness when ingested, bacteria
Symptoms
Nausea; vomiting; abdominal pain; diarrhea;
fever; possible chills and headache
Time of Onset
12 to 24 hours after consumption
Food Usually
Involved
Insufficiently cooked or re-heated meat, poultry
and eggs; products kept unrefrigerated for long
periods of time
Preventative
Measures
Properly cooking food products; proper
refrigeration and packaging; cleanliness of food
handlers; sanitation of equipment
30
Common Foodborne Infections
Illness
Listeriosis
Causative
Agent
Listeria monocytogenes, bacteria
Symptoms
Fever; headache; nausea; vomiting; monocytosis,
meningitis; septicemia; miscarriage; localized external and
internal lesions; pharyngitis
Time of
Onset
Unknown, approximately four days to three weeks after
consumption
Food Usually Ready-to-eat deli meats and hot dogs; refrigerated meat
Involved
spreads; unpasteurized milk and dairy products; soft
cheese made with unpasteurized milk; refrigerated
smoked seafood
Preventative
Measures
Proper hygiene practices; sanitation of equipment and
workspace; rinse, scrub and dry skins of fresh produce
31
Common Foodborne Infections
Illness
Trichinosis
Causative Agent
Trichinella spiralis, a nematode worm
Symptoms
Nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; profuse sweating;
fever; muscle soreness
Time of Onset
2 to 28 days
Food Usually
Involved
Improperly cooked pork and products
containing pork
Preventative
Measures
Cook pork to at least 137°F (58°C); freezing
and storage of uncooked pork at 9°F (-12°C) or
lower for a minimum of 20 days
32
Common Foodborne Infections
Illness
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Causative Agent E. coli O157:H7, bacteria
Symptoms
Severe abdominal cramps; bloody diarrhea; nausea;
vomiting; diarrhea; possible complications from
hemolytic uremic syndrome, occurs when toxic
substances produced by E.coli destroy red blood cells
and injure the kidneys
Time of Onset
3 to 4 days after consumption
Food Usually
Contaminated food and water; undercooked ground
Involved
meat; unpasteurized milk and juice; soft cheeses made
from unpasteurized milk; raw fruits and vegetables
Preventative
Cook ground meat to 160°F (71°C); avoid
Measures
unpasteurized milk, juice and dairy products; wash
hands properly before preparing foods, after using the
restroom and after diapering infants
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Common Foodborne Infections
Illness
Campylobacteriosis
Causative
Agent
Campylobacter jejuni, bacteria
Symptoms
Diarrhea, possibly bloody, abdominal cramps;
fever; vomiting
Time of Onset
2 to 5 days after consumption
Food Usually
Involved
Raw and undercooked poultry; unpasteurized
milk; contaminated water
Preventative
Measures
Cook poultry to an internal temperature of 165°F
(74°C); keep raw meats separate from other
foods; do not consume raw or unpasteurized milk,
juice or dairy products
34
Common Foodborne Infections
Illness
Toxoplasmosis
Causative Agent
Toxoplasma gondii, parasite
Symptoms
Enlarged lymph nodes; headache; muscle
aches; sore throat; fever; blurred vision
Time of Onset
1 to 3 weeks after consumption
Food Usually
Involved
Raw or undercooked contaminated meats;
exposure to feces from an infected cat;
contaminated water
Preventative
Measures
Avoid eating undercooked and raw meats;
wash hands properly after contact with cat
feces or soil exposed to cat feces; wash raw
fruits and vegetables before eating
35
Common Foodborne Infections
Illness
Anisakiasis
Causative Agent
Anisakis simplex, nematode parasite
Symptoms
Tingling of the throat; extraction of the
worm from the body through coughing; in
severe cases nausea and vomiting are
present
Time of Onset
1 hours to 2 weeks after consumption
Food Usually Involved Raw or undercooked fish
Preventative
Measures
Avoid consuming raw or under processed
fish
36
Common Foodborne Infections
Illness
Yersinosis
Causative
Agent
Yersina; Yersina enterocolitica, bacteria
Symptoms
Fever; abdominal pain; bloody diarrhea
Time of Onset
4 to 7 days after consumption
Food Usually
Involved
Consuming contaminated food such as raw pork
products and unpasteurized milk; contaminated
water
Preventative
Measures
Do not consume raw or undercooked pork; avoid
unpasteurized milk and milk products; wash
hands properly before handling foods
37
Common Foodborne
Intoxications
Illness
Botulism
Causative
Agent
Toxins produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum
Symptoms
Nausea; vomiting; fatigue; dizziness; headache; dryness of skin;
constipation; impaired swallowing, speaking, respiration and
coordination; dizziness; double vision Ten percent of cases are
fatal
Time of Onset
12 to 72 hours after consumption
Food Usually
Involved
Home-canned foods with a low acid content, improperly canned
commercial foods, home-canned or fermented fish, herb-infused
oils, baked potatoes cooled in aluminum foil, cheese sauce;
Children under one year of age can get botulism from eating
honey. Some honeys may contain undeveloped Clostridium
botulinum bacteria.
Preventative
Measures
Properly complete home canning; do not let infants consume
honey; do not purchase dented cans
38
Common Foodborne
Intoxications
Illness
Staphylococcal food infection
Causative
Agent
Enterotoxin produced by the bacteria Staphylococcal
aureus
Symptoms
Nausea; vomiting; abdominal pain due to inflammation of
the lining of the stomach and intestines
Time of Onset
12 to 48 hours after consumption
Food Usually
Involved
Foods prepared by hand which require no additional
cooking, such as salads and sandwiches; milk and dairy
products; meat, poultry and eggs
Preventative
Measures
Wash hands properly before handling and preparing foods;
do not prepare foods when ill; do not prepare foods with an
exposed sore on the hands or wrists; keep the kitchen
sanitary
39
Assessment
40
Assessment
1. Which common foodborne infection illness occurs 8-24 hours
after consumption?
A. Yersinosis
B. Toxoplasmosis
C. Perfringens
D. Hemolytic uremic syndrome
2. Which food is usually involved in the common foodborne
infection illness Anisakiasis?
A. Raw or undercooked fish
B. Contaminated water
C. Raw pork
D. Unpasteurized milk
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Assessment
3. Trichinella spiralis is also known as which of the following?
A. Bacteria
B. Nematode worm
C. Parasite
D. Nematode parasite
4. What are the symptoms of the illness Yersinosis?
A. Enlarged lymph nodes; headache; muscle aches
B. Nausea; vomiting; profuse sweating
C. Nausea; occasional vomiting
D. Fever; abdominal pain; bloody diarrhea
42
Assessment
5. Which of the following is NOT a preventative measure one can
take to avoid toxoplasmosis?
A. Wash raw fruits and vegetables before eating
B. Avoid eating undercooked and raw meats
C. Wash hands properly after contact with cat feces
D. Storing leftovers at the correct temperature
43
44
HACCP
• Stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control
Points
• Is a program adopted by most commercial
food processors to control hazards in food
processing
45
HACCP
• Identifies critical points
where contamination
occurs in a product and
presents solutions
– example:
Problem: shipping dock
can allow for entry of
rodents
Solution: install closed
container rodent traps
and seal door properly
46
HACCP
• Is composed of seven principles:
– conduct a hazard analysis
– identify critical control points (CCPs)
– establish critical limits for each critical control
point
– establish critical control point monitoring
requirements
– establish corrective actions
– establish record keeping procedures
– establish procedures for verifying the HACCP
system is working as intended
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Ways to Minimize Foodborne Bacteria
• Include:
– cooking
– pasteurization
– canning
– freezing
– irradiation
– proper storage
temperatures
– high pressure
treatment
– acidification
48
Irradiation
• Destroys pathogenic and spoilage bacteria
in food
• Does not alter the freshness, nutritional
content, physical or chemical composition,
aroma or taste of a food
• Can be performed on a wide variety of
foods such as fresh meats, processed
meats and spices
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Irradiation
• Involves exposing food to a source of
ionizing energy
– gamma rays
– machine generated electrons
– x-rays
• Does NOT result in radioactive food
– product never comes into contact with
radioactive material and no residue results from
process
50
Proper Storage Temperatures
• Are usually not followed, resulting in
exponential growth of bacteria
• Include:
– below 40ºF (4ºC) for cold products
– above 140ºF (60ºC) for hot products
140ºF (60ºC)
40ºF (4ºC)
51
To Prevent Foodborne Illnesses
When Purchasing Food
• Separate raw meat and poultry from other
food by wrapping them in plastic bags
• Check product dates and do not purchase
items past the sell-by or use-by date
52
To Prevent Foodborne Illnesses
When Storing Food
• Use an appliance thermometer to regulate
the temperature of the refrigerator and
freezer
• Refrigerate or freeze foods as soon as
possible after purchasing
• Clean the inside of the
refrigerator weekly,
discarding old foods
53
Refrigerator Storage Times
• Are affected by temperature
– lower temperatures increase
storage time
• Are designed to provide the
consumer with a safe product
which has retained its quality
Bacteria will still grow at refrigeration temperatures (40ºF33ºF, 4ºC-0ºC), but much slower than at room temperature
(72ºF, 22ºC).
54
Freezer Storage
• Should be at or below 0ºF
(-18ºC)
• Long term
– should be in a deep-freeze
type freezer or in a unit which
separates the freezer from the
refrigerator
• Short term
– single door freezer/refrigerators should only be
used for short-term storage of previously frozen
foods
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To Prevent Foodborne Illnesses
Before Food Preparation
• Remove clutter from the workspace
• Clean and disinfect the work area
56
To Prevent Foodborne Illnesses
During Food Preparation
• Wash hands properly before and during
food preparation, especially after handling
meat or poultry
• Thaw food in the refrigerator, microwave or
in cold water, not on the countertop
• Avoid cross contamination by using
separate cutting boards and cutlery for raw
meat, poultry, fish and non-meat products
57
To Prevent Foodborne Illnesses
During Cooking
• Use a thermometer to determine safe
internal temperatures
• Avoid interrupted cooking,
or cooking a product
halfway, refrigerating it,
then cooking it completely
at a later date
58
To Prevent Foodborne Illnesses
During Serving
• Wash hands properly before serving or
eating food
• Keep food at the appropriate temperatures
• Do not leave food at room
temperature for longer
than two hours
59
Handling Leftovers
• Should be done as quickly as possible after
cooking to cool food rapidly
• Should have the ultimate goal of fast
cooling to slow bacterial growth
60
Handling Leftovers
• Includes:
– divide food into small, shallow containers
– maintain free air circulation around containers
in refrigerators
– avoid placing large containers of food in
refrigerators
• large containers will cool slowly and unevenly as
compared to a smaller container
Use cooked leftovers within four days.
61
To Prevent Foodborne Illnesses
After Food Prep Is Complete
• Clean the work area
• Wash all kitchen equipment
and utensils in hot, soapy
water
• Disinfect cutting boards and
other surfaces which touched
raw meat, poultry, fish or
shellfish
• Disinfect countertops
62
Assessment
63
Assessment
1. Which of the following ways can help prevent foodborne
illnesses when storing food?
A. Cleaning the inside of the refrigerator monthly
B. Refrigerating or freezing foods as soon as possible after
purchasing
C. Keeping the temperature of the refrigerator cold
D. Cleaning the inside of the freezer weekly
2. Which of the following ways can one prevent foodborne
illnesses when preparing food?
A. Thawing food on the countertop
B. Washing hands once before food preparation
C. Using the same cutting board for everything
D. Avoiding cross contamination
64
Assessment
3. Which of the following should be done before serving or eating
food?
A. Set the table
B. Clean the countertops
C. Wash the dishes
D. Wash hands properly
4. What should one use to determine safe internal temperatures?
A. Food scale
B. Thermometer
C. Candy thermometer
D. Flavor injector
65
Assessment
5. You should disinfect cutting boards and other surfaces when
which of the following has touched them?
A. Fish or shellfish
B. Poultry
C. Raw meat
D. All of the above
66
Final Assessment
Assessment
1. Which of the following is NOT a classification of microorganism?
A. Spoilage
B. Pathogenic
C. Beneficial
D. Antigenic
2. In which common foodborne intoxication illness are ten percent
of the cases fatal?
A. Staphylococcal
B. Botulism
C. Anisakiasis
D. Salmonella
68
Assessment
3. Which of the following is the appropriate range of food storage
temperatures?
A. Above 60°F (15°C) for cold products
B. Below 40°F (4°C) for hot products
C. Above 160°F (71°C) for hot products
D. Above 140°F (60°C) for hot products
4. Cross-contamination can occur during which of the following?
A. Purchasing food
B. Storing food
C. Preparing food
D. All of the above
69
Assessment
5. Which of the following microorganisms are harmful?
A. Pathogenic microorganisms
B. Spoilage microorganisms
C. Beneficial microorganisms
D. Microorganisms
6. Which of the following individuals are NOT classified as a
vulnerable population for foodborne illness?
A. A three year old boy
B. A twenty three year old pregnant woman
C. A thirty year old man with diabetes
D. A twenty three year old man
70
Assessment
7. Which of the following common foodborne intoxication occurs
12-48 hours after consumption?
A. Staphylococcal
B. Clostridium botulinum
C. Botulism
D. Enterotoxin
8. When should leftovers be used?
A. Within one day
B. Within two days
C. Within three days
D. Within four days
71
Assessment
9. Which of the following bacteria produces substances which
destroy red blood cells and injures the kidneys?
A. Escherichia coli O157: H7
B. Yersina enterocolitica
C. Toxoplasma gondii
D. Campylobacter jejuni
10. Which of the following is NOT a way to minimize foodborne
bacteria?
A. Storing all foods at room temperature
B. Cooking foods
C. Freezing foods
D. Canning foods
72
Resources
United States Department of Health and Human
Services. (n.d.). Causes of food poisoning. Retrieved
from
http://www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/causes/index.html
Kendall, P. (2008, May). Bacterial food-borne illness.
Retrieved from
http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09300.html
University of Nebraska - Lincoln. (2011). Unl food: food
safety. Retrieved from
http://food.unl.edu/web/safety/home
United States Department of Agriculture, U. (2010,
December 15). Fact sheets: safe food handling.
Retrieved from
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/Be_Smart_Keep_Fo
ods_Apart/index.asp
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2009,
May 04). Bbb - campylobacter jejuni. Retrieved from
http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/F
oodborneIllnessFoodbornePath ogensNaturalToxins/BadB
ugBook/ucm070024.htm
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory
Diseases: Division of Bacterial Diseases. (2005,
October 25). Yersinia enterocolitica. Retrieved from
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/yersinia_g.
htm
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2009,
May 04). Bbb - anisakis simplex and related . Retrieved
from
http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/F
oodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadB
ugBook/ucm070768.htm
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Acknowledgements
Production Coordinators
Kelly Adams
Olivia Mitchell
Brand Manager
Megan O’Quinn
Graphic Designer
Melody Rowell
Technical Writer
Jessica Odom
V.P. of Brand Management
Clayton Franklin
© MMXIV
CEV Multimedia, Ltd.
Executive Producer
Gordon W. Davis, Ph.D.
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