THE COLD WAR, THE RED SCARE, AND McCARTHYISM THE COLD WAR • Definition: Open yet restricted rivalry/hostility between U.S. and Soviet Union and respective allies • 1947 – 1991 • Never featured direct military action COMPETING IDEOLOGIES AND BELIEFS United States vs. Soviet Union Democracy vs. Communism UNITED STATES Democratic government: • supreme power vested in people • free electoral system • power exercised directly by people or elected agents SOVIET UNION • People incapable of choosing leaders • Repressed all opposition • Demanded rigid obedience • No religious tolerance UNITED STATES Capitalism: • economic system • investment made/ownership maintained mainly by private individuals/corporations, including production, distribution, exchange of wealth SOVIET UNION Communist government: • All economic/social activity controlled by (oppressive) state [Central Planning] • Dominated by single political party in continuous control UNITED STATES Freedom of expression: • Arts • Entertainment • Media • Religion COMMUNISM: • A revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, moneyless, and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production, as well as social, political, and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order. THE COLD WAR • U.S. & Britain feared Soviet/communist expansion in Western Europe and beyond • Soviets determined to keep control of Eastern Europe CONFIRMATION BIAS—PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK Confirmation Bias is the tendency to seek out “evidence” that confirms that which we already believe to be true, and disproportionately ignore evidence that contradicts our preconceptions. In other words, Psychologists have shown that people tend to try to find reasons why they are right, rather than looking at a situation objectively. Even when we think we are being objective, we often are not. “I’d not call it sick…the devil’s touch is heavier than sick.” –Goody Putnam DISTRUST AND PROPAGANDA • U.S. and Soviet Union assumed very worst of each other • No peace or reconciliatory talks • Emphasized the threat from the other to their citizens DISTRUST AND PROPAGANDA • Sent spy satellites /agents to check each other’s activities • TV programs, movies, radio shows, comic books all proclaimed the superiority of capitalism. MILITARY BUILDUP • Cold War resulted in massive military buildup. • “Arms Race” - Both sides stocked up on atomic, hydrogen, nuclear weapons. • Use of these weapons would ensure complete annihilation of both countries. MILITARY BUILDUP Created massive fear among citizens. http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=120wGLgC Tkg THE (SECOND) RED SCARE 1950 - 1954 THE EFFECTS OF FEAR • Fear of communism dominated American politics • Shaped foreign policy • Americans feared that individuals who supported ideas/objectives of Communist Party might overthrow U. S. government PUBLIC FEAR • Communism a national obsession • Miss America contestants asked for their views on Karl Marx, Communism's founder • Cincinnati Reds baseball team changed name to Redlegs THE ANTI-COMMUNIST CRUSADE • Nation embarked on crusade • Goal - root out communist influence in America wherever evidence of treason could be found. BASED ON YOUR READING OF THE ARTICLE…. • Why was the 10 years after the end of WWII labeled a decade of fear? WHY FEAR FLOURISHED:1940S-50S • Red Scare--US citizens deported after Bolshevik Revolt in Russia 1917 • USSR installs Communist puppet govt's in Eastern Europe after WWII • Mao Zedong and Communists take control in China 1949 • Soviets detonate atomic bomb 1949; Cold War nuclear hysteria • Rumors (later confirmed!) of Soviet spies in US gov't (Alger Hiss) • (Secret) Communist messages in American movies??? PUBLIC FEAR • Movies, books, TV and radio shows, comic books, celebrities, politicians all warned about the "Red menace." http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ByvXINerE_k&list=UU5rNjpSthkvMIyWdason_5g&index= 1&feature=plcp QUICK WRITE REFLECTION: IN YOUR JOURNALS Images: • What images, details, or sounds were most effective in communicating fear? Emotions: • What kinds of emotions did you feel as you watched the clip? • Do you think you would have been affected by such political advertising on television? HUAC & MCCARTHYISM • Government agencies/politicians traded in on the fear and carried out overzealous executive/legislative investigations of political dissenters • Disregarded individuals’ basic constitutional rights WHAT IS MC CARTHYISM? • Feb. 9, 1950: Sen. Joseph McCarthy claimed to have list of 205 knownmembers American Communist Party within the State Dept. • Waged vicious campaign to expose Communist spies in U.S. government • McCarthyism: The practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper evidence POLITICAL AMBITION • American public went crazy with thought of radical communists living in U. S. • Demanded investigation of underground agitators • Most on McCarthy’s list not communists McCARTHY'S PERSECUTION • McCarthy’s false accusations/unrelenting publicity: – Caused many to lose their jobs – Produced popular attacks/ judgment/accusations on others – Destroyed reputations HOUSE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES • Before McCarthy there was the Blacklist • In November 1947 HUAC identified 19 communist party members in Hollywood. • HUAC called in the “Hollywood Ten” (all communist party members) to testify, and to name other communists they know. • The Blacklist begins. HOLLYWOOD BLACKLIST Listed screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, composers, etc. Denied employment because of political beliefs/ associations, real or suspected. HOLLYWOOD BLACKLIST • Artists barred from work on basis of: – alleged membership in/ sympathy toward American Communist Party – involvement in liberal/ humanitarian political causes that blacklist enforcers associated with communism – refusal to assist investigations into Communist Party activities THE HOLLYWOOD BLACKLIST • Promoted censorship across entire industry. • All individuals who testified before HUAC were asked to identify other people they knew from communist meetings. The list grew and grew. • Hollywood was torn apart by mistrust and worry. Many people found themselves mysteriously out of work once their names were mentioned. • A publication entitled Red Channels began to circulate. Red Channels identified all the most recently identified “communists” in Hollywood. TO CONSIDER In your notebook… • Why are learning about 1950s America? • What connections do you see to Miller’s play? ARTHUR MILLER (1915-2005) • One of America’s greatest playwrights • Penned The Crucible, Death of a Salesman, and Enemy of the People, among other works • Miller met Elia Kazan, a man who would become his closest friend, while working with the Federal Theatre Project. ELIA KAZAN (1909-2003) • Kazan and Miller teamed up in NYC in creative collaboration: Miller wrote the scripts; Kazan directed them. • A celebrated director and producer of major motion pictures. • Directed A Streetcar Named Desire, On the Waterfront and Splendor in the Grass, among other works. YOUTHFUL IDEALISM??? • The Great Depression left many Americans wondering about the stability of US policy, and influenced the two men to explore socialist and communist ideologies. After attending some informational meetings, Kazan joined the communist party (and later left); Miller did not join. THE HOOK • Miller and Kazan witnessed mobsters monopolizing jobs on the Jersey docks as workers, desperate for income, were exploited. This served as the inspiration for their collaborative play The Hook, a story about one man’s struggle against injustice on the docks. • Miller and Kazan move to Hollywood, taking their script with them. ARTHUR MILLER/ELIA KAZAN • Elia Kazan was among those called to testify to HUAC in 1952. At first he resisted the pressure, but eventually he named 17 communists, all of whom had been previously named by someone else. • Arthur Miller was troubled by the Hollywood Blacklist and his friend Elia Kazan’s decision to testify in front of HUAC and name fellow party members. • Kazan agreed to testify a second time, and this was enough to sever his friendship with Miller. • Miller, greatly troubled by the current state of government in Hollywood, travelled to the east coast, where he got the idea to align the Blacklist with the Salem Witch Trials of 1692. THE CRUCIBLE •The Crucible is an allegory for the 1950s politics in Hollywood and the investigations of HUAC. ALLEGORY: • a form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself • Examples include Gulliver’s Travels, Lord of the Flies, Animal Farm, and Avatar • And of course…The Crucible. THE CRUCIBLE… • The play was met with mixed reviews. • The actress who played Elizabeth Proctor at its premier was blacklisted immediately. • Arthur Miller writes a speech for John Proctor that appears at the end of the play. In it, he is able to express his feelings about HUAC’s demand that people confess to communist connections and name others involved. ON THE WATERFRONT • Elia Kazan, recognizing the parallel between himself and John Proctor, had an opportunity to answer back to Miller. • He reworked their script The Hook into the screenplay for On the Waterfront, starring Marlon Brando. • Brando’s character, Terry, gives a speech at the end of the film in which he justifies his decision to name names. • In The Hook, Terry is beaten to death for his actions, but in On the Waterfront he overcomes his wounds and triumphs. • This film won 8 Oscars and was a huge success. LIFE, OR ART? • In both scripts, as in reality, the protagonists are asked to name names in exchange for clemency. • In Kazan’s work, as in his life, the protagonist agrees to name names, and comes to the conclusion that it was the righteous decision. • In Miller’s work, the protagonist refuses to name names, and is eventually punished for maintaining his principles in the face of death. THE RESOLUTION • In the end, Miller and Kazan reconciled with the help of Marilyn Monroe, Miller’s then wife and Kazan’s previous girlfriend. • In 1999, Kazan was awarded the lifetime achievement Oscar for his years of work in Hollywood. Some opposed his award, saying he was only able to keeping working at the expense of those he named in front of HUAC. • Despite his feelings about Kazan’s testimony, Miller supported Kazan receiving the Oscar.