THE ROOTS OF VOCABULARY: GREEK ROOTS AND LATIN ROOTS Learning Objective We will use Greek and Latin word roots to *determine the meaning of words. *determine = figure out Track with me; read with me; tell partner. What are we going to do today? We know that words are broken into parts that help us figure out their meaning: Prefixes: un- undo re- refill pro- for, forward Suffixes: -ful joyful -ly sadly -ness kindness Prefixes are at the beginning of words. Suffixes are at the end of words. pre- means before fix means attach, repair Whiteboards: So, “prefix” means “attached before.” Which word part is found at the end of words? We know that words are broken into parts that help us figure out their meaning. Prefixes Suffixes Prefix Meaning Example Suffix Meaning Example re- back, again refill -ful Having careful -less joyless tri- three triplet Without, missing un- not undo -ly In the manner of hopefully Tell your partner: An example of a prefix is ______ which means ______. How do word parts like prefixes and suffixes help us _______? A root is a set of letters that have meaning. It is the most basic form . Affixes are added to the root to create a new word. Example: The Latin root ject means “throw” So project can mean “to throw forward” A root can be at the front, middle or end of a word. Many words in the English language are based on Greek & Latin word roots What is a word root? English words can have all three parts: prefix + root + suffix ab + duct + ed away from + to lead/pull + verb: past tense abducted means ”pulled or lead away from” i.e. The general was abducted by masked gunmen. Roots can appear more than once, and anywhere in the word. Word Meaning geology earth study / study of the earth telegraph distance writing / writing that travels far tricycle three wheels asocial not being companionable / not Concept wanting to join others 1. Which one of the following shows a root with an affix? bicycle How did you know? 2. hippopotamus Importance Knowing and using Greek and Latin word roots can help you figure out the meaning of words you don’t recognize. This will make you a better reader and writer. Why is it important to know how to use Greek and Latin word roots? Can anyone share a different reason? Skill Steps 1. Highlight the word root (or roots). 2. 3. What does the word root mean? Look at the remainder of the word: What does the prefix mean? What does the suffix mean? Use the word root table to determine the meaning. Skill root + suffix I Do astrology astro = stars -logy = study of So it means: "the study of stars” How did I determine the meaning of astrology? Frame: “We determined the meaning of astrology by ______________.” We Do biology bio = life -logy = study of So it means: “the study of life” How did we know biology meant ‘the study of life’? Frame: “We knew that biology meant ‘the study of life’ because _______________________.” prefix + root I Do We Do empathy enamor em- = having pathy = feeling So it means: “having feeling” en- = having amor = love The soldier had empathy for the prisoner. What does enamor mean? “having love” How do you know that? root + root I Do We Do pseudonym aqueduct pseudo = false nym = name ”false name” aque = water duct = to lead/pull What is an aqueduct used for? How do you know that? Samuel Clemens wrote under the pseudonym “Mark Twain.” prefix + root + suffix I Do We Do retrospective carnivore retro = backwards spect = look -ive = having quality of “quality of looking backward” carni = meat vor = eat -e = one who “one who eats meat” History is a retrospective way of looking at life. What does carnivore mean? How did you know? Closure • • What do we call the most basic form of a word that has meaning? What does portable mean? Why do you think knowing and using Greek and Latin word roots is important? Independent Practice Follow the steps and directions. Write the meaning on the line following the word. A List of Greek and Latin Word Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes Root Meaning Root Meaning Root Meaning Prefix/Suffix Meaning duct to lead/pull micro small phobia fear of ab- away from tele distance spect look, see auto self a-, un-, -less not, without graph write, draw aque, aqua water rupt break em-. en-, -y, ful having, marked by bio life astr, aster stars scope see, watch retro- backwards geo earth logy, ology study of pseudo false -ive, -ic having quality of rium house cycle wheel dynam power -al result of trans across nym, nom name ject throw -able, -ible ability pathy feeling for amor love pro forward -oid resembling, like cent, centi hundred derm, derma skin vor eat greedily -or, -er, -e one who carn meat chron time soci joining in, being together ex- out of omni all, every meter measure ped, pod foot, footed bi- two struc, struct build cent hundred con, com together, with tri- three hydro water trans across -ly in the manner of The Greek Alphabet Capitals A B Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Small letters Name α β γ αμπθαμζ βενα gamma δ ε ζ delta epsilon zeta η θ eta theta The Greek Alphabet Capitals Small letters Ι Κ Λ ι κ λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο μ ν ξ ο Π Ρ π ρ Name iota kappa lambda mu nu xi omicron pi rho The Greek Alphabet Capitals Small letters Σ Τ Υ ς, σ τ υ Φ Χ Ψ φ χ ψ Ω ω Name sigma tau upsilon phi chi psi omega Prefixes multiple prefix symbol 101 102 103 deca hecto kilo da h k 106 109 1012 mega giga tera M G T 1015 1018 peta exa P E submultiple 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 prefix symbol deci centi milli d c m micro nano pico μ n p femto atto f a Roots Base aqua circ, circum compute labor, lab mod, medi meter, metr Meaning water around to compute work middle measure Origin Latin Latin Latin Latin Latin Greek Roots Base opt ortho phon photo son term vac Meaning eye straight sound, voice light sound boundary, limit empty Origin Greek Greek Greek Greek Latin Latin Latin Prefix List Base ant, anti auto deca, dec, deka Meaning against self ten Origin Greek Greek Greek di, dis dia extra hemi hypo, hyp two, twice through, across beyond half under, less then Greek Greek Latin Greek Greek Prefix List Base inter intro iso kilo macro mega micro mono Meaning between within equal thousand long, large great small one Origin Latin Latin Greek Greek Greek Greek Greek Greek Prefix List Base multi non, ne penta pro quad, quatr semi sub Meaning many, much not five before, forward four half under, below, up from below Origin Latin Latin Greek Latin Latin Latin Latin Prefix List Base super, supra syn, sym, syl tele trans tri un uni Meaning above, done together, with far off over, across three not one Origin Latin Greek Greek Latin Latin Latin Latin Homework (submitted on September 3th) Find ten words based on Greek and Latin roots in book of physics and write the meaning of it. Translate one paragraph from book of physics into Indonesian.