Air Pollution History - Principles Acute vs. Chronic Examples: SO 2 , Acid Rain and Ozone
Crude Examination of History Industrial Revolution Age of the Automobile 2008 ‘Present’ -3300 BC -5300 YBP Ötzi - man Acute Local Point SO 2 Impacts: Individual, human health Non-human impacts Visibility Climate Change Chronic Dispersed Non-point Complex Smog Acid Precipitation Long distance Transport Ozone Ozone-CO 2 interactions Particulates Heavy Regulations/Laws metals Issues of Social Justice
Ötzi - der Mensch aus dem Eis Arsenic Copper http://www.viewzone.com/oetzi.html
North America’s Largest Sources of SO 2 • Sudbury, Ontario, Canada (1883 to present) • Copper Hill/Duck Town, Tennesse (Pre European to 1983) • ASARCO Smelter - Tacoma (1890 1985) • Anaconda Smelter - MT (1884 - 1980) • Smelterville/Kellogg, Idaho (1888 - 1981) • Trail BC
History Continued - Sudbury Smelting of Nickel & Copper Point Source 1883 First Mine 1890 Ground Level Roasting Beds 1928 Roasting Beds - gone Tall stacks 1972 Super Stack 1250’ 1990’s Further Reductions Acute to Chronic Local to Distant Simple to Complex http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/envision/sudbury/air_quality/index.htm
Sudbury - Ecological Effects Principles of Acute, Point-Source Air Pollution 90 miles 7000 Lakes Waste Land Timber harvesting Stages of Acute Air Pollution Damage II I I - Visible Damage on sensitive species III II - Sensitive tree IV IV - Only most tolerant plants alive species dies, other trees show deformed crowns III - Shrubs and herbaceous plants die
Transition from Acute, Point Source, Local to Chronic, Non-point source (or multiple), Distant • Acid Precipitation • Result of transferring problem from local to distant • Application of technologies to reduce smoke and soot • Takes incredible detective work, especially with terrestrial vs. aquatic systems • Greatest financial impact: structures
Acid Rain - 1 H + SO 4 = NO 3 http://www.umac.org/ocp/4/info.html
Acid Rain - 2
: • H + is being added • SO 4 = is being added • NO 3 is being added
Acid Rain - 3
Acid Rain - Effects on Forest Ecosystems
Acid Rain - Effects on Forest & Aquatic Ecosystems: Major Detective’s job • Shallow rooted trees and plants Where do plants get their required water and nutrients?
CO 2 - air N - soil & decomposition & input of NO 3 Other minerals (Ca, Mg, K) - decomposition & weathering
Continued Rocks (minerals) Chemical & Physical Secondary minerals (clays) Weathering 1. Parent material 2. Climate 3. Topography Parent Material 4. Vegetation 5. Time • Geology of parent material • Certain soils are more susceptible to acid rain • Low soil carbon - poor acid buffering capacity
Continued • H + acts to remove K + , Mg + , Mn + , Ca ++ • NO • If H 3 + combines with K very high, then Al + , Mg +++ + , Mn + , Ca • Combination is very soluble, leaches out is removed.
++ Clay Ca ++ Organic matter K + Clay H + Ca ++ NO 3 Organic matter H + K + NO 3 Parent Material Clay H + Organic matter H + Al +++
Smog and LA ≤ 60 ppb > 125 ppb
Regarding the behavior of aspen in the article you read - select the false statement
18% 77% 5%
1. Aspen is relatively widely distributed 2. Greatest impact of ozone on aspen is in the Pacific Northwest 3. Aspen is very sensitive to ozone
Example of an Ozone Episode
Ozone Formed • Correct precursors • Sun light, warm temperatures • Inversion
General Principle • Chronic levels of a pollutant do not kill humans, or plants outright; weaken.
• A weakened person or plant - Plant: its productivity or ability to make biomass
. How might this affect a trophic pyramid or prices of food?
Human: Immune system compromised • Other factors also weaken humans and plants.
• THEN some other factor usually kills the human or plant.
Next Steps • Laws and Regulations: Clean Air Act of 1970 and modifications • Combinations of ozone and elevated carbon dioxide.
• Long-distance transport • Cap and trade model for controlling SO 2