Technology in Action

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Technology
in Action
Alan Evans • Kendall Martin
Mary Anne Poatsy
Ninth Edition
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
0
Technology in Action
Technology in Focus:
Information Technology Ethics
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
1
Ethics in Computing
Computing ethics cover wide range of areas
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
2
What is Ethics?
• Study of general nature of morals and
specific moral choices
• Morals involve conforming to established
ideas of right and wrong
• Difference between fairness and equity
• Ethical values are guidelines used to make
decisions
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
3
Systems of Ethical Conduct
• Relativism
– No universal moral truth, only beliefs,
perspectives, and values
• Situational ethics
– Decision making should be based on
circumstances
• Religious traditions
– Judeo-Christian ethics
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
4
Societal Ethics
• General set of unwritten guidelines for
people to follow
• Rule utilitarianism
– Espouses establishing moral guidelines
through specific rules
• Unethical behavior
– Not conforming to a set of approved standards
of social or professional behavior
– Not all illegal behavior is unethical
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
5
Personal Ethics
• Checklist of
personal decisions
– Some have clear,
well defined
principles
– Others’ ethics are
inconsistent or
applied differently in
similar situations
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6
Personal Ethical Development
• Many elements contribute to your ethical
development
– Family and
cultural bias
– Religious affiliation
– Life experiences
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7
Define Your Personal Ethics
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Describe yourself
List your beliefs
Identify external influences
Consider “why”
Prepare a statement of values
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8
Benefits of Ethical Living
• Complying with laws can make life much
simpler
• Health benefits of ethical living
– Decreased stress and anger
– May avoid mental and physical damage
– Increased happiness
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9
Personal Ethics & Your Worldview
• Do your ethics shift when you go to work?
– Employers expect you to follow ethics and
rules of conduct established by the owner
– Individuals do not need to blindly follow
unethical practices
– Whistle-blowers can expose unethical (but still
legal) acts through various media outlets
– Actions outside work could reflect on your
employer
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10
Making Ethical Choices
• Most personal ethical decisions involve
few people
• Ethical choices in business must give
consideration to stakeholders
• Stakeholders are people or entities
affected by the operations of a business
– Include customers, suppliers, employees,
investors, financial lenders, and society
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
11
Technology and Ethics
• Technology affects all areas of our lives
• Moves faster than rules can be made
• Use of technology is often left up to the
individual
• Constantly challenges our ethics as
individuals and as a society
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12
Using Computers to Support
Ethical Conduct
• Speed of information exchange allows
technology to support ethical conduct
• Charitable organizations use the Internet
for fund-raising
• Internet is tool for organizing aid to areas in
crisis
• Web sites and Facebook can locate friends
and family members after a disaster
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13
Ethics and Technology Issues
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Social justice (whistle-blowing)
Intellectual property (international piracy)
Privacy (personal privacy and technology)
E-Commerce (geolocation)
Electronic communication (free speech)
Computer abuse (cyberbullying)
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14
Social Justice
• In a free democracy, are there still things
the public does not have a right to see?
• Point:
– Technology provides access to information
• Counterpoint:
– Technology should only allow controlled
access to information
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15
Intellectual Property
• What happens to “fair trade” if some
countries refuse to enforce copyright
laws?
• Point:
– International copyright protections need to be
vigorously enforced
• Counterpoint:
– Global business demands understanding
other cultures
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16
Privacy
• Does social media erode personal
privacy?
• Point:
– Social media sites should protect personal
privacy
• Counterpoint:
– Social media sites are entitled to freely share
information
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
17
E-Commerce
• Geolocation: Marketing tool or invasion of
privacy?
• Point:
– Geolocation devices do not threaten privacy
• Counterpoint:
– Geolocation devices are a threat to privacy
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
18
Electronic Communication
• Does free speech have a price?
• Point:
– U.S. companies should comply with local laws
• Counterpoint:
– U.S companies should put what is right ahead
of what is financially expedient
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19
Computer Abuse
• Cyberbullying – Who should protect
children from each other?
• Point:
– Parents must protect their children from
cyberbullying
• Counterpoint:
– Schools must bear the major responsibility for
protecting students from cyberbullying
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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
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