Bio122: Fall 2015 Lecture 2 Outline & Study Questions Outline (use this as a basis to be sure you understand each section) I. Physical Environment A. Re-cap: Biomes result from climate (Temperature & water levels) B. Chemical Environment (Ch2:44-48) 1. Salinity 2. pH 3. Gases – Oxygen C. Physiological ecology (coping with environmental stressors) (Ch 4) 1. ecological success 2. acclimatization 3. adaptation 4. ecotypes 5. trade-offs D. Temperature variation 1. Temperature impacts on physiological activity a. metabolic rates (in-class activity) b. lipid bi-layer function 2. Temperature regulation by plants a. Energy inputs/losses i. radiation ii. conduction & convection iii. evapotranspiration b. Plant Adaptations to temperature i. Stomate opening regulation ii. Reflective properties – pubescence iii. Leaf orientation iv. Surface roughness – modify boundary layer 3. Temperature regulation by animals a. Ectotherms vs. Endotherms b. Surface area: volume ratio c. Activity level d. Metabolic compounds E. Water variation 1. Water potential – sum of: a. Gravitational potential b. osmotic potential c. pressure potential d. matric potential 2. Osmotic regulation a. Regulation of solutes i. sharks ii. Dunaliela algae b. Extract salts i. marine birds & reptiles ii. mangroves c. control input/output (freshwater vs. saltwater fish) Study Questions: Lecture 2 1. Describe briefly how each of salinity, pH, and oxygen levels impact organisms 2. 3. 4. 5. Differentiate between acclimatization & adaptation Define ecological success. Define trade-off and provide an example. Describe the basic structure of cell & organelle membranes and state how temperature affects them. 6. How does temperature affect metabolic rates? 7. Define: radiation, conduction, convection. 8. List & briefly describe 4 adaptations of plants to assist in temperature regulation. 9. Define: ectotherm, endotherm 10. How does surface to volume ratio impact temperature regulation in organisms? 11. List 3 adaptations of animals to assist in temperature regulation. 12. Define water potential, include the definition of each of its components (matric, pressue, osmotic) 13. Define osmosis and describe how it impacts cells. 14. List & briefly describe 3 different osmoregulation techniques, providing an example of an organism for each one.