Ch 8 Cellular energy
Thermodynamics is the study of how energy is _________________.
How many thermodynamic laws are there as far as biology is concerned?
Energy is __________________ it can neither be created nor destroyed.
Energy can be converted into another or different ______________.
Energy is ______________ in the food we eat.
Can you convert 100% of the energy in a conversion with no loss of energy?
Lost energy is called ______________.
In the food chain, producers represent 100 % of the available energy. Consumers can only expect to obtain only ________ % of that energy.
Organisms are classified as heterotrophs or ______________ depending on how they obtain energy.
Animals are therefore called ______________ while plants are called ______________ for making their own food.
Plants make their own food/energy by a process known as ______________________.
By what process do animals/heterotrophs get their energy?_______________________.
Phototrophs use ___________ energy to make chemical energy.
Chemoautotrophs use ________________ like hydrogen sulfide to make energy.
There are ___ processes that make up the metabolism.
Catabolism means to ______________ down food as in how animals get energy.
Plants synthesize their food in an _______________ process.
The sum of catabolism and anabolism together makes up ___________________.
The anabolic pathway that plants make their own food/energy is called_____________________.
Photosynthesis converts light energy into _______________ energy known as ATP.
Animals use a catabolic process known as _____________ ________________ to make
Is photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?
What are the two products given off by photosynthesis that are used in cellular respiration?
Cellular respiration gives off 2 products needed by photosynthesis…they are?
What is the unit of cellular energy used by all living organisms?
ATP stands for…
How many phosphates are in ATP?
What sugar is found in ATP?
When just 1 phosphate bond is broken off the ATP molecule, _____________ is released.
1. In an overview, photosynthesis captures _____________ and converts it into chemical energy.
2. Converting one form of energy to another is called an energy _________________.
3. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis..
4. Photosynthesis occurs in ____ separate phases.
5. Phase I is called the light __________ phase or light reaction phase.
6. Chloroplasts are found in the __________ of plants.
7. Chloroplast are disked shaped structures that contain two compartments…the
______________ in the fluid filled space called the ______________.
8. Thylakoids are arranged in stacks called ________________.
9. The stroma is a fluid filled _________________.
10. The absorption of light occurs in the _______________ of the chloroplasts.
11. Thylakoids contain a pigment called __________________ which is green in color and is what absorbs light.
12. Name three types of chlorophyll…
13. Caritinoids reflect what colors of light?
14. Phase I the light absorption phase occurs in the ________________ membranes.
15. Name the 2 light absorbing proteins that contain chlorophyll…
16. What doe light do to electrons when it strikes photosystem I?
17. The other thing light does when it strikes photosystem I is that it splits__________.
18. Activated or excited electrons make their way from photosystem I to photosystem II via the ______________________.
19. Electrons eventually make their way to a protein called ______________ where they wait for NADP to come by.
20. When NADP picks up electrons it can now carry ______________ which will be used later.
21. As electrons move down the ETC, ____________ is pumped into the thylakoid from the stroma.
22. Another source of hydrogen in the thylakoid space is the splitting of ____________.
23. As hydrogens build up in the thylakoid, hydrogen moves out via the ATP
________________ channel converting _________ into ADP in a chemiosmotic process.
24. The light phase is also known as the ____________ making phase because ATP is made.
25. Phase II is known as the ________________ cycle.
26. The calvin cycle is also called the energy ____________ phase because glucose is stored after being made.
27. Name the three phases of the Calvin Cycle.
28. Carbon fixation, the first phase makes what unstable compound?
29. The reduction phase makes….
30. What is the total amount of G3P made?
31. Of the 12 G3P’s made, 2 are used to make ___________ a monosaccharide which is stored.
32. 10 G3P’s are used in the ________________ phase to make RuBp to start the cycle all over again.
33. Name the 2 alternate Energy Pathways…
34. Corn uses which pathway?
35. C4 plants conserve water by keeping ___________ closed when it is hot.
36. CAM pathway plants exchange CO2 at ____________ to reduce water loss.
8.3 Cellular respiration
1. Plants use photosynthesis to make food/energy while animals use ____________
_____________ to make ATP.
2. What are the 2 goals of cellular respiration?
3. What is the chemical equation for cellular respiration…
4. Name the 3 processes of cellular respiration…
5. Cell respiration occurs in the ___________________ of the cell.
6. Glycolysis is ____________ which means it requires no oxygen to occur.
7. In the end, Glycolysis produces three product…names them for 1 pyruvic acid.
8. The kreb cycle is also called the citric ________ cycle and is also called the Trans
_______________ acid cycle.
9. In an overview, The Kreb Cycle is a series of just ___ chemical reactions.
10. Name the 2 chemical reactions…
11. Decarboxylation removes ______________ and combines it with oxygen to make
12. Oxidation-Reduction reactions produces _________________.
13. Each Pyruvic acid goes thru ____ chemical reactions all together.
14. What are the 3 products produced by the Kreb Cycle?
15. What is the most important product of the Kreb Cycle.
16. What is the waste product of the Kreb Cycle?
17. What does one Glucose molecule produce?
18. The ETC is __________________ process producing ATP.
19. What 2 molecules transport hydrogen (similar to NADP)?
20. FAD is different from NAD because it can transport ___ hydrogen.
21. H+ is pumped out of the _______________ and diffuses back via the ATP
22. In all 3 phases of cellular respiration, how much ATP is made?
23. Fermentation happens when there is no __________ present.
24. In Lactic Acid Fermentation, Pyruvic Acid is converted into ________ acid and stored in the ____________ until oxygen becomes available.
25. In Alcohol Fermentation, yeast and bacteria convert pyruvic acid into _________ alcohol.
26. Both types of fermentation make ATP and hydrogen as long as there is __________.