Name _____________________________ Block ________ Date _____________ Bacteria and Viruses Study Guide Chapters 23 & 24 Bacteria: 1. What do the domains of eubacteria and archaebacteria share in common? 2. Name three types of archaebacteria. 3. What is a special characteristic of each? 4. What are the three main shapes of bacteria? What are the two classes of cocci? 5. What are the results of gram + and gram – staining? 6. Why do gram stains appear different colors? 7. What substance is found in bacteria cell walls but not archaea? 8. What is the function of the endospore of bacterial cell? 9. What is a plasmid? 10. What are the protein “hairs” on a bacterial cell? 11. What are the differences between bacterial cells and human cells? 12. What is the cell membrane made of and what is its job? 13. What are the three ways bacteria can recombine their genetic information? 14. Describe the processes of the three ways listed in # 13. 15. What are pathogens? 16. What are some food produces made using bacteria? 17. What is the outermost layer of a bacteria cell called? 18. What are three methods by which bacteria can harm us? 19. Name two ways antibiotic resistance can happen. 20. Which are closer in relation (in regards to their RNA) Archae to Bacteria or Archae to Eukyra? What is the evidence for this? 21. What is bioremediation? Name an example. 22. What are the four different names we have for how bacteria get their energy and carbon? 23. What are oxygen-requiring bacteria called? Bacteria that are poisoned by oxygen? Bacteria that are not affected either way? 24. Why would not taking all the antibiotic medication prescribed to you increase the chances of antibiotic resistance? 25. Name one species of bacteria (you can pick the one you did your project about) and discuss signs and symptoms of the disease, how it is diagnosed, and how to treat/prevent outbreak of the disease. 26. What is zoonosis and why is it so dangerous to humans? Viruses: 27. How are viruses classified? 28. What two parts do all viruses contain? 29. What special third part do many viruses have? What is it made of? 30. What are viroids and prions? 31. What are the two replication cycles of viruses? 32. Briefly describe the two replication cycles. 33. What are the two types of viruses found in vaccinations? 34. Why are viruses called obligate intracellular parasites? 35. What is the DNA called that is inserted into a cell from a virus? 36. What is the difference between temperate and virulent viruses? 37. How does HIV cause AIDS? 38. What are some common vectors of viruses? 39. What type of virus converts RNA into DNA? 40. What is the enzyme it uses called? 41. What type of virus infects bacteria? 42. Viruses that can cause cancer carry what kind of gene? 43. Are viruses considered alive? 44. What are three ways humans counter-act viral infections? Graphing: Make sure you know how to draw a proper graph! *label the x and y axis (with proper units) *make a correct title (including independent and dependent variables) *proper scales of data *when to use a bar, line, or pie graph.