BIOQ121- Foundations of Critical Enquiry Assignment A. Research Article Retrieval Name: Shannon Hobson Student number: 242425 Word Count: 316 Non-experimental study/cohort/case-control study: A case controlled study uses observational methods to collect data as they exist in nature, rather than through manipulation of variables pertaining to an outcome. (Portney & Watkins 2009, p.277) Journal article 2 assessed the outcome of cervical cancer and intake of high antioxidant vitamins. This is a case control study because two groups of Korean women, with or without a diagnosis of cervical cancer, where observed over a period of 1 year. Extensive questionnaires and interviews were taken about diet and lifestyle to determine intake of high antioxidant vitamins. There was no manipulation to these aspects by the researchers. Results showed a higher risk of developing cervical cancer with a lower intake of high antioxidant vitamins (Kim et al. 2010, p.188). Link to article 1: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=47657996&site=eds-live Blinded and/or Randomised Controlled Trial: A randomised controlled trial is when participants are put into two groups; one group with a certain condition, is given a variable, and the other, with the same condition, is given a placebo. This is done in order to, “exert control over most threats to internal validity, providing the strongest evidence of causal relationships.” (Portney & Watkins 2009, p.194). Journal article 2 assessed mild-moderate dementia (condition) patients to see if there is a change in cognitive functioning (outcome) in relation to taking a pure Gingko Biloba supplement (manipulated variable) (McCarney et al. 2008, p.1222). This is a randomised controlled trial because the patients were randomly allocated, “by the referring clinician rather than diagnostic criteria,” as well as, “score of 12–26 inclusive,” (McCarney et al. 2008, p.1223). Patients were either given (experimental group) or not given (control group) the supplement, and results showed no major change. Link at article 2: could not be found, Pdf. has been attached and emailed** Literature review/systematic review or meta-analysis: A systematic review is the collection relevant information from a range of available source’s to make important decisions for clinical use. (Portney & Watkins 2009, p.357) Journal article 3 assessed the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) therapy as support for emotional stress caused by diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This is a systematic review because key terms (neoplasms, tumour, MBSR, etc.) were used to find relevant articles using databases (National Research Register, Cochrane Library, etc.), and the studies found were independently reviewed by experts in the field. The authors add that MBSR is a, ”clinically valuable intervention for cancer patients to improve mood, sleep quality and reduction in stress” (Smith et al. 2005, p.322). Link to article 3: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2009059526&site=eds-live References: Kim, J, Kim, MK, Lee, JK, Kim, JH, Son, SK, Song, ES, Lee, KB, Lee, JP, Lee, JM, & Yun, YM 2010, ‘Intakes of Vitamin A, C, and E, and β-Carotene Are Associated With Risk of Cervical Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Korea’, Nutrition and Cancer, vol.62, no. 2, pp. 181-189, viewed 3 March 2014, <http://www.ebscohost.com>. McCarney, R, Fisher, P, Iliffe, S, Haselen, R, Griffin, M, Meulen, J & Warner, J 2008, ‘Ginkgo biloba for mild to moderate dementia in a community setting: a pragmatic, randomised, paraellel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial’, Internationl Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol.23, pp. 1222-1230, viewed 3 March 2014, <http://www.ebscohost.com>. Portney, L & Watkins, M 2009, Foundations of Clinical Research-applications to practice third edition, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Smith, JE, Richardson, J, Hoffman, C & Pilkington, K 2005, ‘Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction as supportive therapy in cancer care: systematic review’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol.52, no. 3, pp. 315–327, viewed 3 March 2014, <http://www.ebscohost.com>.