Assessment A - Natural Know How

BIOQ121- Foundations of Critical Enquiry
Assignment A. Research Article Retrieval
Name: Shannon Hobson
Student number: 242425
Word Count: 316
Non-experimental study/cohort/case-control study:
A case controlled study uses observational methods to collect data as they exist in nature,
rather than through manipulation of variables pertaining to an outcome. (Portney & Watkins
2009, p.277)
Journal article 2 assessed the outcome of cervical cancer and intake of high antioxidant
vitamins. This is a case control study because two groups of Korean women, with or without
a diagnosis of cervical cancer, where observed over a period of 1 year. Extensive
questionnaires and interviews were taken about diet and lifestyle to determine intake of high
antioxidant vitamins. There was no manipulation to these aspects by the researchers.
Results showed a higher risk of developing cervical cancer with a lower intake of high
antioxidant vitamins (Kim et al. 2010, p.188).
Link to article 1:
Blinded and/or Randomised Controlled Trial:
A randomised controlled trial is when participants are put into two groups; one group with a
certain condition, is given a variable, and the other, with the same condition, is given a
placebo. This is done in order to, “exert control over most threats to internal validity,
providing the strongest evidence of causal relationships.” (Portney & Watkins 2009, p.194).
Journal article 2 assessed mild-moderate dementia (condition) patients to see if there is a
change in cognitive functioning (outcome) in relation to taking a pure Gingko Biloba
supplement (manipulated variable) (McCarney et al. 2008, p.1222). This is a randomised
controlled trial because the patients were randomly allocated, “by the referring clinician
rather than diagnostic criteria,” as well as, “score of 12–26 inclusive,” (McCarney et al. 2008,
p.1223). Patients were either given (experimental group) or not given (control group) the
supplement, and results showed no major change.
Link at article 2: could not be found, Pdf. has been attached and emailed**
Literature review/systematic review or meta-analysis:
A systematic review is the collection relevant information from a range of available source’s
to make important decisions for clinical use. (Portney & Watkins 2009, p.357)
Journal article 3 assessed the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) therapy
as support for emotional stress caused by diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This is a
systematic review because key terms (neoplasms, tumour, MBSR, etc.) were used to find
relevant articles using databases (National Research Register, Cochrane Library, etc.), and
the studies found were independently reviewed by experts in the field. The authors add that
MBSR is a, ”clinically valuable intervention for cancer patients to improve mood, sleep
quality and reduction in stress” (Smith et al. 2005, p.322).
Link to article 3:
Kim, J, Kim, MK, Lee, JK, Kim, JH, Son, SK, Song, ES, Lee, KB, Lee, JP, Lee, JM, & Yun,
YM 2010, ‘Intakes of Vitamin A, C, and E, and β-Carotene Are Associated With Risk of
Cervical Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Korea’, Nutrition and Cancer, vol.62, no. 2, pp.
181-189, viewed 3 March 2014, <>.
McCarney, R, Fisher, P, Iliffe, S, Haselen, R, Griffin, M, Meulen, J & Warner, J 2008, ‘Ginkgo
biloba for mild to moderate dementia in a community setting: a pragmatic, randomised,
paraellel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial’, Internationl Journal of Geriatric
Psychiatry, vol.23, pp. 1222-1230, viewed 3 March 2014, <>.
Portney, L & Watkins, M 2009, Foundations of Clinical Research-applications to practice
third edition, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Smith, JE, Richardson, J, Hoffman, C & Pilkington, K 2005, ‘Mindfulness-Based Stress
Reduction as supportive therapy in cancer care: systematic review’, Journal of Advanced
Nursing, vol.52, no. 3, pp. 315–327, viewed 3 March 2014, <>.