Review & Preview Ch. 1 midway

Review & Preview
Review Chapter 1
• What is a theory? Why are
theories important?
• Theories of human
• Basic issues in development
– Continuous or discontinuous
– One course or many
– Nature vs. nurture
• Different types of influences on
– age-graded, history-graded,
• What is resilience? What are
some factors that relate to
• Video: Journey Into Life
Psychosocial Stages
Basic trust vs. mistrust
Birth–1 year
Autonomy vs. shame/doubt
1–3 years
Initiative vs. guilt
3–6 years
Industry vs. inferiority
6–11 years
Identity vs. role confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Early adulthood
Generativity vs. stagnation
Middle adulthood
Integrity vs. despair
Late adulthood
Traditional Behaviorism
Pairing of conditioned stimulus with unconditioned stimulus
to produce a behavior
classical conditioning
Use of reinforcers or punishment to increase or decrease the
likelihood of repeating a spontaneous behavior
operant conditioning
Social Learning Theory
Emphasis on modeling, imitation, or observational learning
Piaget’s Stages of
Cognitive Development
Table 1.2
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Ecological Systems Theory
Figure 1.5
Other major theories
Information Processing: views the mind as a symbolmanipulating system through which information flows
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience: examines
connections between brain development and behavior
Ethology: considers how behavior patterns promote
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: focuses on how culture
is transmitted to the next generation, particularly through
cooperative dialogue
Journey Into Life
video vocabulary
sex cells
sex chromosomes
identical and fraternal twins
Chapter 2
• Genetic foundations
• Reproductive choices
• Environmental contexts
for development
• Understanding the
relationship between
heredity and
Chapter 3
• Prenatal development
• Threats to development
• Childbirth
• The newborn baby
Video: The Baby Human –
To Talk
Chapter 4 Quiz
1) At birth, the _________ is nearer its adult size than any other physical
structure, and it continues to develop at an (astounding/slow) pace
throughout infancy and toddlerhood.
2) Provide at least three benefits provided by breast milk over formula.
3) (Gross/fine) motor development refers to control over actions that help
infants get around in the environment, while (gross/fine) motor development
refers to smaller movements.
4) True or False: Vision is one of the best developed senses at birth and
experiences little change during infancy and toddlerhood.
Chapter 5 quiz
1) During Piaget’s _________________ stage, which spans the first 2
years of life, infants and toddlers “think” with their eyes, ears and
1) According to Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory, complex mental
activities have their origins in ___________________________.
Through joint activities with (less/more) mature members of their
society, children come to master activities and think in ways that
have meaning in their culture.
3) True or False: Scores on infant intelligence tests are excellent
predictors of intelligence beyond early childhood.
4) What is telegraphic speech? Provide an example.
Chapter 6 quiz
1) Which of Erikson’s stages occur during the Infancy/Toddler period?
2) T/F Infants come into the world with the ability to clearly express basic
3) Match each style with the appropriate description, according to Thomas and Chess.
_____ Quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, in
a) slow-to-warm
generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences.
b) easy
______ Is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental c) difficult
stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences.
_____ Is irregular is daily routines, is slow to accept new experience
and tends to react negatively and intensely.
______________ is the strong affectionate tie that we have to special people in
our lives.