Review & Preview 2/5/16 Review Chapter 1 • What is a theory? Why are theories important? • Theories of human development • Basic issues in development – Continuous or discontinuous – One course or many – Nature vs. nurture • Different types of influences on development – age-graded, history-graded, nononormative • What is resilience? What are some factors that relate to resilience? • Video: Journey Into Life Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Basic trust vs. mistrust Birth–1 year Autonomy vs. shame/doubt 1–3 years Initiative vs. guilt 3–6 years Industry vs. inferiority 6–11 years Identity vs. role confusion Adolescence Intimacy vs. isolation Early adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation Middle adulthood Integrity vs. despair Late adulthood Behaviorism Traditional Behaviorism Pairing of conditioned stimulus with unconditioned stimulus to produce a behavior classical conditioning Use of reinforcers or punishment to increase or decrease the likelihood of repeating a spontaneous behavior operant conditioning Social Learning Theory Emphasis on modeling, imitation, or observational learning Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Table 1.2 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Ecological Systems Theory Figure 1.5 Other major theories Information Processing: views the mind as a symbolmanipulating system through which information flows Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience: examines connections between brain development and behavior Ethology: considers how behavior patterns promote survival Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation, particularly through cooperative dialogue Journey Into Life video vocabulary genes DNA chromosomes mitosis sex cells meiosis sex chromosomes Conception zygote embryo fetus identical and fraternal twins Preview Chapter 2 • Genetic foundations • Reproductive choices • Environmental contexts for development • Understanding the relationship between heredity and environment Chapter 3 • Prenatal development • Threats to development • Childbirth • The newborn baby Video: The Baby Human – To Talk Chapter 4 Quiz 1) At birth, the _________ is nearer its adult size than any other physical structure, and it continues to develop at an (astounding/slow) pace throughout infancy and toddlerhood. 2) Provide at least three benefits provided by breast milk over formula. a. b. c. 3) (Gross/fine) motor development refers to control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, while (gross/fine) motor development refers to smaller movements. 4) True or False: Vision is one of the best developed senses at birth and experiences little change during infancy and toddlerhood. Chapter 5 quiz 1) During Piaget’s _________________ stage, which spans the first 2 years of life, infants and toddlers “think” with their eyes, ears and hands. 1) According to Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory, complex mental activities have their origins in ___________________________. Through joint activities with (less/more) mature members of their society, children come to master activities and think in ways that have meaning in their culture. 3) True or False: Scores on infant intelligence tests are excellent predictors of intelligence beyond early childhood. 4) What is telegraphic speech? Provide an example. Chapter 6 quiz 1) Which of Erikson’s stages occur during the Infancy/Toddler period? 2) T/F Infants come into the world with the ability to clearly express basic emotions. 3) Match each style with the appropriate description, according to Thomas and Chess. _____ Quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, in a) slow-to-warm generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences. b) easy ______ Is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental c) difficult stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences. _____ Is irregular is daily routines, is slow to accept new experience and tends to react negatively and intensely. 4) ______________ is the strong affectionate tie that we have to special people in our lives.