The Romantic Period Historical Ambience and Influence: 1776: American Revolution 1789: French Revolution (refer to mod. Hist. notes) by Perry or Petes 1807: British slave trade outlawed 1820: Ascension of George IV 1830’s: Start of industrial revolution Social Conditions of the 18th and 19th centuries Poverty Women were equalling and rivalling men in literature and were actually more popular poets. Ex: Anna Barbauld, Charlotte Smith, and Mary Robinson. Rights movements; individualism activists. What is Romanticism? An artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions. Celebrated nature rather than civilization, and valued emotion and imagination over reason. Romantic Elements in Poetry Individualism: a social theory advocating the liberty, rights, or independent action of the individual. Ex: William Wordsworth’s Daffodils. “I lie, In vacant or in pensive mood, They flash upon that inward eye, Which is the bliss of solitude; And then my heart with pleasure fills Nature: The elements of the natural world (forests, lakes, mountains, flowers, animals, etc.) that, in poetry, influences and inspires the author as well as the reader. Ex: Percy Shelley’s A Bridal Song, “In a sea of glassy weather! Night, with all thy stars look down,--”. Sublime: impressing the mind with a sense of grandeur or power; inspiring awe, veneration. Ex: William Blake’s The Tyger, expresses the sublime fear; “What the hammer? What the chain? In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? What dread grasp, Dare its deadly terrors clasp?” Gothic: relating to a literary style characterized by gloom, the grotesque, and the supernatural, popular especially in the late 18th century. Ex: Lord Byron’s Darkness, “Darkness had no need, Of aid from them. She was the universe.” Supernatural: of or relating to things that cannot be explained according to natural laws; characteristic of or caused by or as if by a god; miraculous or of, involving, or ascribed to occult beings. Exceeding the ordinary; abnormal. Ex: Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, “The many men, so beautiful! And they all dead did lie; And a thousand thousand slimy things, Lived on; and so did I.” Primary Poets and Instigators of the Romantic Poetry Movement. William Wordsworth, William Blake, Lord Byron, Percy Shelley, Jonathon Keats, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.