Govt Ch.2.2

year after the Revolution began,
the Second Continental Congress issued
the DOI. Thomas Jefferson principal
author, relied heavily on John Locke. It
announces independence in 1st
paragraph and focuses on concept of
natural rights – those basic rights all
humans should enjoy. Most of the
document is a long list of grievances
(complaints) against King George III.
 _____________________________
the first attempt at establishing last govt.
The Second Continental Congress
approved in 1777.
 Established “firm league of friendship”
 Each state had to ratify (formal approval).
Most agreed within year
 It set up a unicameral legislature, with no
executive or judicial branch.
 Weaknesses:
 No power to tax
 Couldn’t regulate trade between states
 Couldn’t make states obey each others laws
need 9 of 13 states to enforce
 All 13 states had to approve amendments
(changes) to Articles
 The
Framers – delegates from each state –
55 attended
 Never before or since has so remarkable a
group been brought together, although
Thomas Jefferson wasn’t there (in France).
 Men of wide knowledge, public experience,
wealth and prestige. Many fought in
 Worked in secrecy to protect from outside
 James Madison deserves title of “Father of
Constitution” as floor leader and convention
Decision – keep
Articles or create new
at once agreed to
create new govt., Known as
Randolph Resolution.
The Virginia Plan – largely plan
of James Madison – Large state
plan – called for govt. with 3
separate branches.
Congress would be bicameral (2 levels) –
representation (number of votes) based
on state’s population. Upper house
appointed, lower house popularly elected.
 Congress would choose a “National
Executive” and “National Judiciary”
 Goal was to create truly national govt.
with greatly expanded powers, and the
ability to enforce its decisions
The New Jersey Plan (small state
plan)- small states objected to some
parts of Virginia Plan. Didn’t want large
states to dominate smaller states.
Called for equal representation in
Called for unicameral (one level)
legislature with each state fully
Federal executive of more than one
person chosen by Congress
Federal Judiciary appointed by Federal
Compromises – Conflict between
large and small states settled by
the Connecticut Compromise
which combined the Virginia Plan
and the New Jersey Plan. Its often
called the Great Compromise:
 Congress
should be composed of 2
houses (levels). The Senate (upper
house) all states would be
represented equally. The House of
Representatives (lower house)
representation would be based on
4. Other Compromises
Three-Fifths Compromise –
Should slaves be counted in the
population of the Southern states?
Finally agreed that “free persons”
should be counted and so too
should “three-fifths of all other
persons.” Removed by the 13
Amendment, which abolished
Commerce and Slave Trade
Compromise – Southern states
worried that Congressional power
to regulate foreign and interstate
trade would be used against
agricultural South. Afraid of export
taxes on tobacco and slave trade.
Compromise was that Congress was
forbidden to tax the export of
goods and couldn’t interfere with
slave trade for 20 years.
2 Section 5
on September 17, 1787.
the Constitution
Constitution was printed,
circulated, and debated vigorously.
Two groups emerged:
The Federalists – favored
ratification. They stressed the
weakness of the Articles of
The Anti-Federalists – opposed the
greatly strengthened powers of
the central government, and the
lack of a bill of rights.
of 85 essays written by
Alexander Hamilton, James Madison,
and John Jay to support ratification of
the Constitution. Excellent commentary
on the Constitution. Still referenced
today to explain the principles behind
the Constitution.
and New York (largest states)
each had close passing votes
effect in 1789
capital was New York City