Chapter Three Victims and Victimization Criminology 9th edition Larry J. Siegel © 2003 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Victimology The study of crime victims and their relationship to the criminal justice process. Question CAN SOCIETY BE A VICTIM OF CRIME? IF SO, HOW? The Problems of Crime Victimization Pain and Suffering Fear System Abuse Economic Loss Antisocial Behavior Questions IN ADDITION TO PROPERTY LOSS, HOW DOES CRIME AFFECT PRODUCTIVITY AND SOCIAL COSTS? WHAT IS THE CYCLE OF VIOLENCE? Declining Crime Rates, 1973-2003 Property Crime Victimization Rates, 1973-2003 Violent Crime Victimization Rates, 1973-2003 The Nature of Victimization Prior Victimization Social Ecology of Victimization ? The Victim’s Household Victim Characteristics: Gender, Age, Race, Marital and Social Status Violent Crime Rates by Age of Victim Violent Crime Rates by Race of Victim Questions Does a person bear some of the responsibility for his or her victimization, i.e. lifestyle? Should we blame the victim? Lowest Income Are More Likely to be Victimized than the More Affluent Number of Violent Crimes per 1,000 persons age 12 or Older Percent Income Level 1999 2000 Change Less than $7,500 57.5 60.3 4.9% $7,500 - $14,999 44.5 37.8 -15.1% $15,000-$24,999 35.3 31.8 -9.9% $25,000-$34,999 37.9 29.8 -21.4% $35,000-$49,999 30.3 28.5 -5.9% $50,000-$74,999 33.3 23.7 -28.8% $75,000 or more 22.9 22.3 -2.6% Question What factors predict chronic victimization? Three Specific Types of Characteristics Increase the Potential for Victimization Target Vulnerability Target Antagonism Target Gratifiability Theories of Victimization Routine Activities Lifestyle Theories Deviant Place Victim Precipitation Questions According to the victim precipitation perspective, what is the difference between active and passive precipitation? Do you think that schools create a “high risk” lifestyle for teenagers? Are neighborhoods or individual characteristics more important for determining victimization? Routine Activity Theory Felson & Cohen Motivated Lacks capable guardians offenders CRIME Suitable targets The interaction of three factors! The Opportunity Structure of Crime The Government’s Response to Crime Victims 6th Amendment, U.S. Constitution In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. Should the following be added to the Sixth Amendment? “In every criminal prosecution, the victim shall have the right to be present and to be heard at all critical stages of the judicial proceedings.” Victim Service Programs Court Services Public Education Victim Compensatio n Forms of Victim Services Crisis Interventio n Victim-Offender Reconciliation Programs Victims’ Bill of Rights Questions What is “target hardening?” Do you think that self-protection in the form of citizen firearm possession (defensive use) is a reasonable victim prevention tactic? What do studies show? Do you think restorative justice is a legitimate answer to victims and society?