Advanced Placement European History Spring 2015 Review Drill A

Advanced Placement
European History
Spring 2015
Review Drill A
This ideology arose in response to the American
War of Independence and the French
Revolution. Its adherents viewed society as an
organism that changes (or ought to change)
very slowly over the generations.
He is best known for his book The Protestant Ethic
and the Spirit of Capitalism, in which he proposed
that ascetic (austere) Protestantism, was one of
the major reasons that created both market-driven
Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution
Graham Wallas
Alexis de Tocqueville
Charles Darwin
 Max Weber
In addition to her fear of even a defeated
Germany, the French also feared
American and British economic
the loss of more territory
 Communism
Little Entente
The Paris Peace Talks and the Treaty of Versailles
 satisfied no one
treated the defeated Central Powers justly
placed the United States in the forefront of
World affairs
satisfied only France, Japan and Italy
He was a rival to and murdered by Mussolini
 Giacomo Matteotti
Éamon de Valera
Giuseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Garabaldi
Camilo Cavour
If a person traveled from west to east in
Europe in the eighteenth century the more
likely it would be that he would see
rotten boroughs
more clearly defined and responsible
 people bound to the land
the putting out system
In 1922, this Irish author wrote Ulysses, in which the
episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in an array of
contrasting literary styles, including stream of
consciousness. The novel explores the squalor and
monotony of life in a Dublin slum with characters
paralleling Odysseus, Penelope and Telemachus.
Thomas Mann
 James Joyce
George Bernard Shaw
Ernest Hemingway
Robert Owen
believed that society should be managed by
experts and that wealth not be redistributed
inspired Pierre Joseph Proudhon and the
Anarchist movement of the 1840s
was the architect who rebuilt Paris for
Napoleon III
built a successful industrial environment at
 New Lanark, Scotland
The ___________________was the period
lasting from accession of Augustus to the death
of Marcus Aurelius in 180 C.E.
 Pax Romana
Punic Wars
Period of the Kings
His seminal work, Principles of Geology (published
1830-1833 in three volumes), embraced the idea of
Uniformitarianism or the idea that the earth was
shaped by processes that are still in operation
William Paley
Herbert Spencer
Charles Darwin
 Charles Lyell
The Hohenzollerns turned which of the following
states in a major European power?
 Prussia
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic
of the Late Middle Ages?
The Conciliar Movement
a. Plentitude of Power
The Mini Ice Age
The Theory of Forms
He was an English Romantic poet who believed
that the artist’s imagination was God at work in
the mind and said that “the imagination was a
repetition in the finite mind of the eternal act of
creation in the infinite I AM.” .
 Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Johann Gottfried Herder
Victor Hugo
Lord Byron
Protestant reformers in the Sixteenth Century
tended to do all of the following except
oppose the celibate life for clergy
encourage basic education
oppose monasticism
 view marriage as a degraded state of life
Modern European feminism emphasizes
political equality
 women’s control over their own lives
economic equality
political and legal equality
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.
precipitated the War of Jenkins ear
outlawed the importation of slaves into the
New World
 ended the War of the Austrian Succession
forced Prussia to give up its possessions in
the Holy Roman Empire
When the British Fabian Socialists, Beatrice and
Sidney Webb, spoke of a new civilization in the
1920s and 1930s, they were referring to (the)
 a.
Soviet Union
b. Fascist Italy
c. Ramsay MacDonald’s Labor Government
d. Nazi Germany
The Congress of Victors in 1934
enforced the Dekulakization policies of Stalin
invited Lincoln Steffens to address the
 were mostly purged by Stalin
gave support to the expulsion of Trotsky from
the Party
Which is the most accurate statement about
the Crimean War?
Both sides had well-equipped armies
After the war, stability prevailed in Europe for
The European Question was solved
 Piedmont gained some political advantages
In his efforts in opposition to the Atlantic Slave
Trade, he was hailed as a 'Renewer of Society',
and, until his death in 1833, was known as the
conscience of Parliament.
 William Wilberforce
Julio Fandiño
John Trenchard
the Earl of Bute
As a result of the Hampton Court Conference,
Parliament ordered the arrest and eventual
execution of the Duke of Buckingham
Parliament passed the English Bill of Rights
The English Civil War of 1642-1646 broke out
Anglican and Puritan distrust accelerated
Queen Elizabeth came to the throne
Which of the following statements best describes the
school of Impressionism? Impressionists
mostly portrayed religious, mythological and historical
sought the Platonic ideal of perfection
were inspired by imagination, folklore, fairy tales,
dreams and other phenomena in opposition to that of
empirical reasoning
recorded ordinary people at dance halls, cafes, beach
 parties, working in the fields or picnicking in the
French Protestants/Calvinists were called
 Huguenots
The Falangists
 opposed the Spanish Popular Front
triumphed in the 1936 Italian elections
supported the Anschluss in Austria
demanded that ethnic Germans be allowed to
separate from the Sudetenland in
Most philosophes in the Age of Enlightenment
 Existing monarchies
American/British style democracy
French revolutionary democracy
The years from 1919 to 1939 marked the Age of
the Great Depression
 Anxiety
J’accuse, an 1898 open letter accusing the
French government of anti-Semitism in the
unfair trial of Alfred Dreyfus, was written by
Adolphe Thiers
Georges Boulanger
 Emile Zola
Patrice McMahon
Nineteenth century liberals
wanted to extend liberties to the
peasant and urban working classes
opposed the ideas of John Locke
opposed the ideas of Adam Smith
believed in advancement in society
 based on talent and achievement but
did not favor full democracy.
Aristotle favored polity by which he meant that
a ruler with complete authority should have
power in a state.
honor and honesty were far more important
than money or fame or political power.
the world we live in is not the only world,
because our world is a pale and imperfect
reflection of a perfect world
that the rule of law should limit popular
 sentiment.
In his book, The Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche claimed
to limit human activity to strictly rational
behavior was to impoverish human life.
the study of Socrates and the ancient
philosophers held the key to understanding
human societal evolution
accommodations with modernism were possible
the certainty of a better life was possible
Existentialism can best be defined as
resistance to the expansion of classical
continuation of the revolt against reason
 that began in the nineteenth century.
the extension of Hegelian philosophy
and faith in the power of human reason.
return to the Reformational values of
The three nations who partitioned Poland in the
late eighteenth century were
Prussia, France, Ottoman Empire
Great Britain, Austria, Russia
France, Prussia, Austria
 Russia, Prussia, Austria
At the Peace of Augsburg in 1555
 the prince of any principality determined the
religion of his principality
official recognition was given to both
Anabaptists and Calvinists
Maurice of Saxony supported Charles V
the Protestant princes refused to attend and
were condemned
French economic reformers such as Francois
Quesnay and Pierre Dupont de Nemours were
known as
The Old Regime or Ancien Régime
was a term that applied to the nobility only
was found only in Great Britain
was a series of social relationships bound
 by tradition
ignored the peasants
In 1923, Adolph Hitler and his followers
attempted the Beer Hall Putsch whose
purpose was to
kill Jews
 overthrow the German government
throw France out of the Saar Basin
repudiate the Locarno Treaties
A series of important liberal reforms were
enacted by the Catholic Church:
 at the Vatican II Council of the mid 1960s
at the Vatican I Council of the mid 1860s
before the 1950s
at the urging of popes Leo XIII and Pius X
In March 1939, Adolf Hitler
signed a non-aggression pact with Poland
sent German soldiers into the Rhineland
 occupied Prague
set up the Vichy government in unoccupied
Modern European Existentialism (Europe’s
philosophy of the twentieth century) has its
roots in the thought of Nietzsche and
 Kierkegard
In 1935, what nation did Benito Mussolini attack
and make an Italian colony in spite of objection
from the League of Nations?
Thales of Miletus, Benjamin Franklin and
Alessandro Volta all experimented with
Up until 1850,
most education in Europe took place in church
 run schools
literacy was widespread in all of Western
Romanticism was more important in scientific
thought that Rationalism
the popes refused to have any dialogue with
the Italian government
The Jansenists
opposed the teachings of St. Augustine
 opposed Jesuit teachings about free will
were supported by Pope Innocent X
were defended by Louis XIV and Louis XV
In 1588 at the Battle of Gravelines, the English
finally drove the French from Calais
produced the Bill of Rights
won the Seven Year’s War
 defeated the Spanish Armada
Unlike the First World War, what factor led to the
bitterness of the Thirty Year’s War?
 Catholic – Protestant hatred
growing nationalism
Louis XIV’s desire to control Europe
the Defenestration of Prague
To raise money to build a new St. Peter’s Basilica
in Rome, his famous pitch line was As soon as a
coin in the coffer rings, the soul from
purgatory springs.
Julius II
Martin Bucer
Thomas Cranmer
 Johann Tetzel
Which of the following was not a motive of
Nineteenth Century Imperialism?
 Technology
During the Marburg Colloquy (meaning conversation
or dialogue) of 1529, Luther and Zwingli could not
agree on
Clerical Celibacy
Justification by Faith Alone
Cuius regio; eius religio
The nature of the Eucharist
Stalin did all of the following except
exterminate Kulaks
develop Five Year Plans
continue Lenin’s New Economic Policy
collectivize agriculture
carry out unprededented purges of opponents –
both real and imagined.
The Reformation Parliament of Henry VIII did all of
the following except
passed laws to dominate the clergy
recognized Henry as head of the Church in
made Henry the highest court of appeal for all
sanctioned the execution of Queen Catherine
When Hitler attacked Poland on September 1, 1939,
the Soviet Union
came to Poland’s defense
made an alliance with France and Great Britain
 surrounded the Baltic countries of Estonia,
Lithuania and Latvia
appealed to the League of Nations
In her Charter of the Nobility, she defined the
rights and privileges of the nobility in exchange for
their loyalty and service to the state. These rights
included heredity transferring of noble status,
power over their serfs and exemption from taxes
Maria Theresa
Catherine the Great
Catherine de Médicis
Christina of Sweden
“Bloody” Mary
William Whewell of Cambridge University in
England first coined the word _____________
to describe those who studied the physical
world in growing numbers in French, German
and British Universities.
 scientist
Why did Luther not support the Peasants’ Revolt?
Luther felt no pity for their harsh treatment by
the German nobility
The peasants supported Charles V and the old
Catholic prince-bishops
Luther’s view of Reformation was not political
but spiritual
Luther was afraid that the Catholic party would
win if he backed the peasants.
The latter half of the nineteenth century saw
the rise of (the) _____________ or White
Collar Workers which included secretaries,
retail clerks and lower level bureaucrats.
Professional Class
 Petite Bourgeoisie
Captains of Industry
Restrictions on clothing, food, and luxury items
are all examples of
the Vingtième
the English Game Laws
 Sumptuary Laws
Ghetto life
1871 + 1918 =
Winston Churchill
 Adolf Hitler
Pearl Harbor
Josef Stalin
Plato and Aristotle both
felt that Philosopher Kings should rule
favored Polity or a Constitutional Government
dominated by members of the middle class
developed the idea that rulers themselves
are both the guardians of the law and subject
to the law
despised tyranny and mob rule and wanted a
just and stable society.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès:
thought that Napoleon could be used for his own
 political purposes
proposed a Holy Alliance of Prussia, Austria,
Britain and Russia whereby the monarchs of
those nations would promise to act together in
accordance with Christian principles.
advised Tsar Alexander to withdraw from the
Continental System and prepare for War.
negotiated the Treaty of Schöenbrun which
humiliated Austria and set up Napoleon’s
marriage to Marie Louise.
In the long term, the Columbian exchange
brought a lasting decline in population
because of the ravages of diseases such as
had very little influence on world population
led to economic instability because of a glut of
Chinese silver.
increased world population because of the
 spread of new food crops.
The Petition of Right of 1628
 forbade taxation by the king without the
permission of Parliament
attempted to collect taxes from the nobility by
forcing property owners to pay a forced loans
to the government
laid the basis for Magna Carta
reflected a deep distrust of Oliver Cromwell
and his Parliamentary forces
He was a racialist writer who in 1899, wrote The
Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, in which he
championed the concept of biological determination
through race but also believed that through genetics
the human race could be improved and that even a
superior race could be developed.
Theodor Herzl
Karl Lueger
 Houston Stewart Chamberlain
Paul Lagarde
In France, Nobles of the Robe gained their
rank from
military service
service in the Church
 serving in the bureaucracy
industrial achievement
In May 1871, Adolphe Thiers negotiated the
________________ with Prussia, which
obligated France to pay a large indemnity and
turn over Alsace and Lorraine to Germany.
Treaty of Gastein
Treaty of Frankfurt
Treaty of Plombières
Treaty of Paris
In his book, Reflections on Violence, George Sorel
stated that
bureaucratization (the creation of bureaucracies)
was alien to the modern way of life
people do not pursue rationally perceived goals
 but a led to action by collectively shared ideals.
bureaucracies constitute the most efficient and
rational way in which human activity can be
race was the most important index of human
He was elected pope at sixty-eight and reigned for 25
years. He sought to make accommodations with the
modern age and address the great social questions of
the time. He defended private property, condemned
socialism and Marxism and said that employers were
obligated to treat their employees fairly. His most
important work was Rerum Novarum.
Pope Pius IX
 Pope Leo XIII
Pope Pius X
Pope Pius XI
In 1815, this Serbian leader began the Second
Serbian Uprising. In 1817, he was defeated by
the Ottomans but gained partial autonomy for
most of Serbia. In 1830, he became head of
an independent Serbia
Filiki Eteria
Kara George
Muhammad Ali
 Miloš Obrenovitch
The Korean War resulted in
an overwhelming victory for U.S.-backed
South Korea.
an overwhelming victory for U.S.-backed
North Korea.
 an encouragement of the U.S. policy of
a discouragement of the U.S. policy of
The Revolution of 1905
led to Bloody Sunday
was caused by the Tsar dissolving the
caused the Russo-Japanese War
led to the establishment of the Duma
The French political thinker and historian, Alexis
de Tocqueville
praised the leaders of the French Revolution
was a conservative who despised both
Romanticism and liberalism
 criticized de Gobineau for his racial theories
Wrote The Foundations of the Nineteenth
The Edict of Nantes in 1598
established universal religious toleration
gave Huguenots qualified religious freedom
gave Lutherans religious Freedom
settled the French – Spanish border dispute
In Arms and the Man (1894; the title taken from the first
words of the Roman poet Vergil’s Aeneid) and Man and
Superman (1903), he heaped scorn on the romantic
ideals of love and war. and in Androcles and the Lion
(1912), he pilloried Christianity – and in a currently
edited out Preface, he stated that the teachings of
Jesus of Nazareth were lost at his crucifixion.
Charles Dickens
J. J. Thompson
 George Bernard Shaw
John Maynard Keynes
In spite of the strong contrast in motivation
and economics, the leaders of the
American and French Revolutions used the
liberal philosophy of what treatise of John
Locke to justify the armed overthrow of
tyrannical rule?
The Wealth of Nations
Ninety Five Theses
 Two Treatises of Government
Which two of the following were
NOT among the three pillars of
Nicholas I of Russia?
 Republicanism
 Russification
Eisenhower endorsed the Domino Theory
which held that
that communism would die out on its own.
the Chinese under Mao would challenge the
Unequal Treaty status imposed upon them by
the Marshall Plan had been a failure.
if one state in a region came under the
influence of communism, then the surrounding
countries would follow.
Søren Kierkegaard
supported Vatican II
supported Karl Barth and orthodox
 said that the truth of Christianity was found in
the lives of those who had faced extreme
situations, not in creeds or doctrines
became popular when an Anglican Bishop,
John Robinson, published Honest to God.
Josephine Butler campaigned against
The Contagious Diseases Acts
Virginia Woolf
The Psychoanalytic Movement
The Revolution in Physics
The Bloomsbury Group
The Council of Trent, which lasted from 1545
to 1563, successfully
reached a compromise between Luther
and Calvin.
played a key role in Henry VIII's break with
the Catholic church.
 took steps to reform the Catholic church.
launched the Society of Jesus (the
Louis XIV’s view of the monarchy was
influenced by his experience of the revolt
known as the
 Fronde
The economic basis of eighteenth century life
regional trade
international trade
the land
industry and manufacturing
He believed that behind the development of
human history from one period to the next lay
the mind and purpose of what he called the
World-Spirit, a concept not unlike the Christian
Immanuel Kant
John Wesley
Lord Byron
 Georg Hegel
This leader of the Counter Reformation wrote
Spiritual Exercises and founded the Society
of Jesus.
Charles V
 Ignatius Loyola
John Calvin
Cardinal Caspar Contarini
The Social Darwinists believed that
a sharp distinction had to be made between
the biological and social worlds.
only a socialist political and social structure
would keep humans from destroying
 powerful nations were meant to dominate
weaker societies.
human beings had reached the point where
competition among nations was no longer
In the great Kitchen Debate of 1959,
_____________________ debated luxuries vs.
real needs, but it were clear that the West, led
by the United States had the highest standard
of living in the world.
Stalin and Churchill
Churchill and Stalin
Eisenhower and Khrushchev
 Nixon and Khrushchev
Between 1859 and 1893 Vietnam,
Cambodia and Laos all fell under the
control of
Great Britain
 France
This theory stated that information derived from
logical, mathematical principles and sensory
experience was the only source of knowledge.
Natural Selection
 Positivism
In his book, Leviathan, he argued that people
were “nasty, greedy and selfish” and needed a
strong, strict governmental to keep them under
John Locke
 Thomas Hobbes
Rene Descartes
The chief victim of late nineteenth century
European imperialistic expansion was
_________________ coined the expression
The Lost Generation.
 Gertrude Stein
Ernest Hemingway
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Karl Barth
The Modern Devotion Movement of the late
fifteenth century was a religious movement that
stressed all of the following except
individual piety
practical religion
 monastic life
Charles de Montesquieu
was the first professor of Arabic and Islamic
studies at the University of Paris.
blamed Islam for the fall of both the Roman and
Byzantine Empires.
associated Islamic society with a passivity that
 he attributed to peoples subject to political
wrote Turkish Embassy Letters, in which he
praised Ottoman society especially its practice of
vaccination against smallpox.
The initial driving force in Luther formulating
the Ninety-Five Theses was
his excommunication from the Roman
Catholic church.
 the sale of indulgences.
the rise of secular humanism during the
High Middle Ages
the influence of John Calvin.
In the Sixth Century, he managed to obtain the
obedience of all western bishops, was a skilled
theologian, and emphasized the authority of the
Church over its members, as in stressing the
sacrament of penance.
Urban II
Hugh Capet
 Gregory I
John XII
Which of the following best expresses the idea
of Social Darwinism
Argument from design
We need a critique of moral values; the value
of these values themselves must first be called
into question.
The dream is the disguised fulfillment of a wish
justice is nothing else than the interest of the
He was a French novelist and playwright whose most
famous work was La Comédie Humaine, which presents a
panorama of French life in the years after the fall of
Napoleon Bonaparte. Balzac’s stories showed French life
in such accurate detail with such multifaceted and
amoral characters that he is regarded – even more than
Dickens – as one of the founders of European Realism.
Claude Bernard
Émile Édouard Zola
Gustave Flaubert
 Honoré de Balzac
The German offensive of 1914 aimed at
Paris was halted at
 the Marne
the Somme
After the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia that ended
the Thirty Year’s War, _____________emerged
as Europe’s dominant power
 France
The Holy Roman Empire
The basic challenge facing the Hapsburg
Empire after 1648 was:
Lack of Resources
 Political and Ethnic Diversity
Weak and incompetent rulers
The rising power of England
The first real Prime Minister of Great Britain was
James Edward Stuart
William Pitt the Younger
 Robert Walpole
The Duke of Buckingham
In France, Nobles of the Sword gained their
rank from
 military service
service in the Church
serving in the bureaucracy
industrial achievement