The War of 1812 - NOHS Teachers' Home

The War of 1812
The 2nd Revolutionary War
Seeds of War
• 1803—Napoleon draws Br into a war—as a result US trade
• Br ruled the seas (Battle of Trafalgar) Fr. ruled the land (Battle
of Austerlitz)
• 1806 Orders In Council/Napoleon orders the seizure of all
• Impressment
• The Chesapeake Incident-USS Chesapeake/Leopold---deserters????
• The Non-Importation Act
The Embargo Act “O-grab-me” Act
• Non-Intercourse Act
• Macon’s Bill #2
Moving Toward War
• 1811 negotiations w/Br. Fail---Madison advises
congress to prepare for war.
• War Hawks---Henry Clay John C. Calhoun
• Motive---more land and control of the west.
• NE Objects---trade/sympathy
• Battle of Tippecanoe Nov. 1811
Progress of the War
• June 1 1812---Madison asks for a Dec. of War
on Great Britain for: impressment
interference in US trade
sponsoring Indian uprisings
June 18 1812 Congress Declares War on GB
---two days earlier GB repeals the Orders In
Council but word of this does not reach US until
the War begins
Attitude of The Nation
Very little $$$$ in the treasury
10,000 troops few officers
NE states were bitterly opposed to war
War at sea Hopeless
Frigates/Sloops 17
Scouts ships
Land Campaigns
• 3 prong Attack
1. From Detroit
2. From the Niagara River
3. From the foot of Lake Champlain
Battles of 1813/14
Taking of York (Toronto)
Battle of Lake Erie
British Raid on the Chesapeake---burn the Capitol
-----Star Spangled Banner---Battle of Baltimore
The Needless Battle---New Orleans---Andrew Jackson
Treaty of Ghent
August 1814
• The British public was tired of war and
especially war taxes. Britain proposes
discussing terms.
• Commissioners of both countries met in
Ghent Belgium
• Settled Border disputes---Indian Reservations
• No New Land---No Repayment
• Ratified February 17 1815
The Hartford Convention
• As the capture of New Orleans was imminent Mass., Conn.,
NH, Vm, & RI secretly met in Hartford Conn. To discuss their
grievances and to seek redress for their wrongs
• Some spoke of succession…most wanted financial
assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade.
• They wanted an amendment to the Const. requiring a 2/3
majority for all declarations of embargos, except during
• News of victory in NO met them in Washington: their
mission failed and their (Federalist) candidate in 1816 was
trounced by James Monroe
• Proved to be the end of the Federalist Party.
Results of the War
Increase in manufacturing
Increase in Patriotism/ National Pride
No impressments or Blockades
Indian Troubles in the Northwest went away with
the death of Tecumseh
• US was able to purchase Florida
• New future leaders---Andrew Jackson
William Henry Harrison
Decline of the Federalist---Hartford Convention.
For Discussion
• Compare and Contrast the War for Independence
and the War of 1812
• Military
• Ideology
• Trade
• Land
• Respect
• How the war was actually won….if won at all?
• What was gained?
Nationalism and Economic
Development 1816-1848
The ERA of Good Feelings
James Monroe
Cultural Nationalism
Economic Nationalism
Tariff of 1816
• Henry Clay’s American System
1. Protective Tariffs 2. A National Bank
3. Internal Improvements---social overhead capital
• Panic of 1819
• Growing Pains out West----roads/The Land Act of 1820
• Political Changes
Rush-Bagot Pact 1817
and the Convention of 1818
• The Rush Bagot Pact was an agreement between
the US and GB to eliminate their fleets from the
Great Lakes.
• The Convention of 1818 set the Western
Boundaries between the US and British North
American (later Canada) and the 49th Parallel up
to the Rocky Mountains.
• Both agreements reflected the easing of
diplomatic tensions that led to the War of 1812
and marked the beginning of US/British
Western Settlement and the Missouri
• Recap
• Acquisition of American Indians’ Land
William Henry Harrison
Andrew Jackson
• Economic Pressures
Embargo/Exhausted soil/new land AL, MS, AK
• Improved Transportation
• Immigrants---cheap land
• New Questions and Issues
cheap$$$ & slavery
Slavery and Sectional Balance
• The HR slowed the plans of the Missourians of
becoming an state by passing the Tallmadge
Amendment---it called for no more slaves to
be brought to Missouri and for the gradual
emancipation of children born to slave
parents already there.---it was defeated in the
Senate by slave states---equal representation!!
The Missouri Compromise
• Henry Clay introduced the compromise that
decided weather or not Missouri would be
admitted as a slave state.
• Congress decided to admit Missouri as a slave
state in 1820, but Maine which was part of Mass.,
was to be admitted as a separate free state----12
slave 12 free
• The Missouri Compromise by Congress forbade
slavery in the remaining territories north of the
36*30’ except for Missouri
Oregon and Adding Florida
• Treaty of 1818--- Provided a 10 year joint
occupation of Oregon Territory with BR
without a surrender of right or claims by
either US or BR
• Treaty of Adams-Onis 1819 (Florida Purchase
• Transcontinental Treaty 1821
The Monroe Doctrine
• Monroe drew up a set of a foundation of
American diplomatic ideals such as
disentanglement from European affairs and
defense of US neutrality.
• Separate spheres of influence for the Americas
and Europe.
• Noncolonization
• Non-intervention
The Story.
• European view
• Never an actual law
• Foreign Policy in US