Guest: Capt Allison

Captain Stephanie Allison, PhD
United States Air Force
 Disclaimer: information in this briefing was compiled from multiple sources
and may have been modified or shortened to fit the educational purpose,
format and training time available. Views expressed are those of the author
and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force
or other US military services, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.
Capture their mind and their
hearts and souls will follow
What is PSYOP?
Psychological Operations or PSYOP are planned
operations to convey selected information and
indicators to audiences to influence their
emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and
ultimately the behavior of organizations, groups,
and individuals.
The purpose of United States psychological
operations is to induce or reinforce attitudes and
behaviors favorable to U.S. objectives.
How do you PSYOP somebody?
ψ Target Audience Analysis
ψ culture
ψ Intended Outcome
ψ Product Development
ψ Dissemination Method
ψ Measure of Performance
ψ Measure of Effectiveness
ψ Intelligence Gathering
How is PSYOP disseminated?
Face to Face
ψ Audio visual (television)
ψ Audio media (radio or loudspeaker)
ψ Visual media (leaflets, newspapers, books, magazines,
Leaflet Drop
Commando Solo
"Attention! People of Afghanistan, United States forces will be
moving through you area. We are not here to harm you! We are
here for Usama bin Laden, Al Quaeda, and those who protect
them! Please, for you own safety, stay off bridges and roadways,
and do not interfere with our troops or military operations. If
you do this, you will not be harmed. “ "Do not approach United
States forces. Stay in your homes! We are not here to occupy
you, or to overrun your country. If you see United States forces,
you need to find shelter and not leave it until we have left the
area. This is for your protection. Roadways and bridges will be
unsafe for travel. Your home will be the safest place. Do not
listen to the Taliban or Al Quaeda. We will not harm you if you
comply with these instructions. Once again, we do not want to
harm any innocent people."
History of PSYOP
World War I
German Taube (Dove) Scout Plane of the
type flown by v. Hiddessen
Germany Conducted first leaflet drop of WWI
Lt Ernst von Hiddessen dropped leaflets
on Paris 29 August 1914
“The German Army is at the
Gates of Paris; it only
remains for you to surrender
-Lieutenant von Hiddessen.”
World War I: Cont’d
WWI British “post card” leaflet
This was air dropped on German civilians
To counter German propaganda that their
Prisoners of war were being mistreated
“Besides bombs which kill the body, his [allied] airmen
also throw down leaflets which…kill the soul.”
Field Marshall Paul von Hindenburg
World War II
Captain Monroe
“Monroe Bombs”
Korean War
Holds 45,000 leaflets
Leaflet printed by the 581st Reproduction Squadron,
581st Air Resupply and Communication Wing
M16A1 Cluster Adaptor
Leaflet bomb used during
The Korean War 1950 - 53
Safe Passage Leaflet
An Air Force C-47 drops leaflets over Vietnam
EC-121S Super Constellation, 193rd
Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron (PA ANG)
CORONET SOLO PSYOP broadcast mission 1967
M129E1/E2 Leaflet Bomb
Developed for use in Vietnam
PDU-5/B Leaflet Bomb
Modern PSYOP
“Vote for
The most deadly
weapon is the
Three Types of PSYOP
ψ Gray
ψ Black
White is acknowledged as an official statement or act
of the U.S. Government, or emanates from a source
associated closely enough with the U.S. Government to
reflect an official viewpoint
ψ The information is true and factual
ψ Includes all output identified as coming from U.S.
official sources
ψThe source of
gray propaganda is deliberately
ψThe true source (U.S. Government) is not
revealed to the target audience
ψThe activity engaged in plausibly appears to
emanate from a non-official American source, or
an indigenous, non-hostile source, or there may
be no attribution
ψThe activity engaged in appears to emanate from a source
(government, party, group, organization, person) usually hostile
in nature
ψThe interest of the U.S. Government is concealed and the U.S.
Government would deny responsibility
ψThe content may be partially or completely fabricated, but that
which is fabricated is made to appear credible to the target
ψBlack activity is also usually designed to cause embarrassment
to the ostensible source or to force the ostensible source to take
action against its will
The Approval Process
“Come out, come out,
wherever you are!”
Smith-Mundt Act
The US Information and Educational Exchange
Act of 1948 (Public Law 402), popularly referred to as
the Smith-Mundt Act, specifies the terms in which
the United States government can engage in public
ψ The act also prohibits domestic distribution of
information intended for foreign audiences.
E.g. Voice of America
“information produced by VOA for audiences outside
the United States shall not be disseminated within the
United States”
PSYOP in the USA
Forbid U.S. PSYOP forces to target (i.e., attempt to
change their opinions) U.S. citizens at any time, in any
location globally, or under any circumstances.
ψ Commanders may use PSYOP forces to provide public
information to U.S. audiences during times of disaster
or crisis.
Shelter locations
ψ Vaccination instructions
ψ NEO evacuation
Inform versus Influence