Presenting your message Ch. 12

Presenting your message
Ch. 12
Communication apprehension,
Speech anxiety = Stage fright
75-85% of the U.S. population
experiences some type of anxiety when
faced with giving a public presentation
The issue is not whether or not you are
nervous it is how you deal with that
Two types of stage fright:
Facilitative stage fright
- a little nervousness is good
Debilitative stage fright
There are many reasons for public
speaking anxiety
“I’m afraid…
…I will forget what I am supposed to say.”
…I will make a huge embarrassing mistake.”
…that students will think that I am boring.”
…that I will look stupid.”
Sources of Debilitative Stage fright
1. Irrational Thinking
2. Previous negative experience
3. Lack of experience
4. Fear of negative criticism
5. Fear of the unknown
6. Fear of being the center of attention
Overcoming each of the six
common sources of debilitative
stage fright
#1 Irrational thinking: Knowing that
irrational thinking is often based on
Catastrophic failure
Be rational
Figure out the basis for nervousness and dispel it
What are you afraid of and why?
 Turn negative thoughts into positive thoughts
 Fear of public speaking is common
 Just because you are a bit nervous does not mean
you will not succeed
#2 Previous negative experience:
Be positive
Build and maintain a positive attitude toward your
audience, your speech, and yourself as a speaker
Three statements to concentrate on:
1. “I’m glad I’m here”
2. “I know my topic”
3. “ I have important/interesting information
to give the audience”
#3 Lack of experience: Be Prepared
Know your topic well
 Practice your speech several times
 Being prepared eliminates anxiety and increases
confidence in subject matter
 Work especially hard on your introduction.
***Research has shown that a speaker’s anxiety level
begins to drop significantly after the first 30 seconds of
a presentation
#4 Fear of negative criticism
Focus on people in the audience who are
sending confirming messages
 The audience wants you to succeed
 You have knowledge the audience wants
 The audience probably doesn’t know that you
are nervous
#5 Fear of the unknown
Practice and prepare as much as possible in
order to reduce uncertainty
Practice visualization
#6 Fear of the spotlight: Be
receiver oriented
Concentrate on audience members not
Focus on building a connection with audience
Focus on your message
Make eye contact with members of your
Additional ways of overcoming
speaking anxiety
Stress reduction exercises
Be ready and confident
Using your imagination to visualize the
successful completion of your speech
Visualize giving your entire speech in detail,
imagine how the audience will respond
positively to you
Visualization may help you create a positive
self-fulfilling prophecy
reduce stress
Quietly tighten and relax your leg muscles,
your hands together and then release them
Take a couple of slow deep breaths before you
start to speak
Be ready and confident
Be at your best physically and mentally
Try to get a good nights sleep the night before
Wear cloths that make you feel comfortable
and confident
In conclusion
It is normal to be nervous at the idea of
presenting a speech.
 Everyone in this class has the skills and
ability to be successful public speakers
PART TWO: Delivering your speech
Types of Delivery
Extemporaneous Speech
Planned in advance but delivered in a
spontaneous manner
Speak directly to the audience in a
conversational manner
Practice several times, but appear
Know main points but do not memorize word
for word!
Impromptu Speech
A speech off the top of your head, with
little or no preparation
Remember the following when
giving an impromptu speech:
Scribble a few brief notes before going on
Use personal experience
Stay positive
In preparation for an impromptu
Answer: Who? What? When? Where? Why?
and How?
Choose one main point that you will focus on
Include Introduction, body, and conclusion
Keep your comments brief and to the point
Relate your topic to the audience
Manuscript Speeches
Speeches that are read word for word from a
prepared text
Memorized Speeches
Speeches that are delivered word for word
Most difficult and often least effective
Come across as stiff and extremely formal
Add to feelings of stage fright
PART THREE: Practicing your speech
A successful speech that is smooth and
effective is always the result of extensive
Begin practicing a couple of days before
Steps to follow when practicing:
“talk through” the entire speech
2. Practice speech several times in full
3. Tape-record or video tape yourself speaking
4. Practice in front of a small group of friends
or family
Guidelines for Delivery
There are several components to pay attention
to when delivering a speech:
 Appearance
 Movement
 Posture
 Facial Expression
 Eye Contact
 Paralanguage
It is important to appear credible and
comfortable when delivering a speech
Wear cloths that you are comfortable and
confident in
an important element to your speech
can add or take away from the effectiveness
of your speech
Effective Movements
Use movement to…
• emphasize points
 show change in topics
 show involvement in what you are saying
 retain audience attention
*Planned movements help to alleviate
unplanned movements
Ineffective movements
 Rocking
 Leaning
 Pulling and tugging at clothing
 Tapping
*When practicing be aware of your ineffective
Good posture:
 standing with your spine relatively straight
 your shoulders relative squared off
 Your feet angled out to keep your body
from leaning form one side or another
* Find a comfortable balance in your posture,
do not want to look too stiff or too relaxed
Facial expressions
should go along with message you are
Practice facial expressions in the mirror
while practicing your speech
Eye contact
Increases audience interest
 Helps control nervousness
*Try to meet the eyes of each member of your
audience at least once during presentation
Volume -not too loud or too quiet
Rate -not too slow or too fast
Pitch -Vary pitch in order to keep speech
interesting (avoid monotone)
Articulation -learn how to pronounce words
In conclusion
Practicing your speech is an important key to
 When practicing your presentation be aware
of your effective and ineffective verbal and
nonverbal behaviors.