Presenting your message Ch. 12 Communication apprehension, Speech anxiety = Stage fright 75-85% of the U.S. population experiences some type of anxiety when faced with giving a public presentation The issue is not whether or not you are nervous it is how you deal with that nervousness Two types of stage fright: Facilitative stage fright - a little nervousness is good Debilitative stage fright There are many reasons for public speaking anxiety “I’m afraid… …I will forget what I am supposed to say.” …I will make a huge embarrassing mistake.” …that students will think that I am boring.” …that I will look stupid.” Sources of Debilitative Stage fright 1. Irrational Thinking 2. Previous negative experience 3. Lack of experience 4. Fear of negative criticism 5. Fear of the unknown 6. Fear of being the center of attention Overcoming each of the six common sources of debilitative stage fright #1 Irrational thinking: Knowing that irrational thinking is often based on fallacies 1. 2. 3. 4. Catastrophic failure Perfection Approval Overgeneralization Be rational Figure out the basis for nervousness and dispel it What are you afraid of and why? Turn negative thoughts into positive thoughts Remember: Fear of public speaking is common Just because you are a bit nervous does not mean you will not succeed #2 Previous negative experience: Be positive Build and maintain a positive attitude toward your audience, your speech, and yourself as a speaker Three statements to concentrate on: 1. “I’m glad I’m here” 2. “I know my topic” 3. “ I have important/interesting information to give the audience” #3 Lack of experience: Be Prepared Know your topic well Practice your speech several times Being prepared eliminates anxiety and increases confidence in subject matter Work especially hard on your introduction. ***Research has shown that a speaker’s anxiety level begins to drop significantly after the first 30 seconds of a presentation #4 Fear of negative criticism Focus on people in the audience who are sending confirming messages Remember: The audience wants you to succeed You have knowledge the audience wants The audience probably doesn’t know that you are nervous #5 Fear of the unknown Practice and prepare as much as possible in order to reduce uncertainty Practice visualization #6 Fear of the spotlight: Be receiver oriented Concentrate on audience members not yourself Focus on building a connection with audience members Focus on your message Make eye contact with members of your audience Additional ways of overcoming speaking anxiety Visualization Stress reduction exercises Be ready and confident Visualization Using your imagination to visualize the successful completion of your speech Visualize giving your entire speech in detail, imagine how the audience will respond positively to you Visualization may help you create a positive self-fulfilling prophecy reduce stress Quietly tighten and relax your leg muscles, your hands together and then release them Take a couple of slow deep breaths before you start to speak Be ready and confident Be at your best physically and mentally Try to get a good nights sleep the night before presenting Wear cloths that make you feel comfortable and confident In conclusion It is normal to be nervous at the idea of presenting a speech. Everyone in this class has the skills and ability to be successful public speakers PART TWO: Delivering your speech Types of Delivery Extemporaneous Impromptu Manuscript Memorized Extemporaneous Speech Planned in advance but delivered in a spontaneous manner Speak directly to the audience in a conversational manner Practice several times, but appear unrehearsed Know main points but do not memorize word for word! Impromptu Speech A speech off the top of your head, with little or no preparation Remember the following when giving an impromptu speech: • • • Scribble a few brief notes before going on stage Use personal experience Stay positive In preparation for an impromptu speech: • • • • • Answer: Who? What? When? Where? Why? and How? Choose one main point that you will focus on Include Introduction, body, and conclusion Keep your comments brief and to the point Relate your topic to the audience Manuscript Speeches Speeches that are read word for word from a prepared text Memorized Speeches Speeches that are delivered word for word Most difficult and often least effective Come across as stiff and extremely formal Add to feelings of stage fright PART THREE: Practicing your speech A successful speech that is smooth and effective is always the result of extensive practice Begin practicing a couple of days before speech Steps to follow when practicing: “talk through” the entire speech 2. Practice speech several times in full 3. Tape-record or video tape yourself speaking 4. Practice in front of a small group of friends or family 1. Guidelines for Delivery There are several components to pay attention to when delivering a speech: Appearance Movement Posture Facial Expression Eye Contact Paralanguage Appearance It is important to appear credible and comfortable when delivering a speech Wear cloths that you are comfortable and confident in Movement an important element to your speech can add or take away from the effectiveness of your speech Effective Movements Use movement to… • emphasize points show change in topics show involvement in what you are saying retain audience attention *Planned movements help to alleviate unplanned movements Ineffective movements Fidgeting Rocking Leaning Pulling and tugging at clothing Tapping *When practicing be aware of your ineffective movements Posture Good posture: standing with your spine relatively straight your shoulders relative squared off Your feet angled out to keep your body from leaning form one side or another * Find a comfortable balance in your posture, do not want to look too stiff or too relaxed Facial expressions should go along with message you are presenting Practice facial expressions in the mirror while practicing your speech Eye contact Increases audience interest Helps control nervousness *Try to meet the eyes of each member of your audience at least once during presentation Paralanguage Volume -not too loud or too quiet Rate -not too slow or too fast Pitch -Vary pitch in order to keep speech interesting (avoid monotone) Articulation -learn how to pronounce words correctly In conclusion Practicing your speech is an important key to success. When practicing your presentation be aware of your effective and ineffective verbal and nonverbal behaviors.