Masonry Details

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Masonry Details
Masonry Categories
 Clay
Masonry
– made of burned clay, shale, fire clay or combo
– shaped in plastic state
– fired in kiln at high temperatures to bond mat’l
 Concrete
–
–
–
–
Masonry
made of dry portland cement, aggregates, water
compacted in forms by vibration
cured under controlled temperature & moisture
aging necessary for maximum strength
Clay Masonry Units
 Solid
Masonry
– brick (standard)
» can contain holes, called cores, up to 25% of area
» wide range of colors and surface textures
 Hollow
Masonry (exceeds 25% core area)
– structural clay tile (shapes of concrete block)
 Architectural Terra
– flue liners
– roof tiles
– surface pavers
Cotta
Concrete Masonry
 Concrete
Block
– hollow
– solid
 Special
Units
– decorative
– split faced
– faced block
Why Masonry vs. Wood
 Fireproof
 Durable
 Long
lasting
 Good compressive strength
 Low maintenance
 Immune to termites & rotting
 No corrosion
Brick Sizes
 Net
vs. Nominal
– Net - actual size of brick
– Nominal - brick + mortar joint
 Regional
Size difference
 Mortar Joint
– joint between bricks
– commonly 3/8”
– range 1/4” to 1/2”
Brick Sizes
 Brick
Dimensions
– width x height x length
 Example
– Nominal
– Net
4x3x8
3-5/8 x 2-5/8 x 7-5/8
Brick Positions
6
possible
positions
–
–
–
–
–
–
stretcher
shiner
header
rowlock
soldier
sailor
Methods of Stacking Bricks
Joint Terminology
 Mortar
placed between layers of
brick/block
– made of sand, cement, and lime
– strength of mortar bond
» (High) M, S, N, O, K(Low)
 Each
row of brick is called
a wythe. Two rows of brick
is termed two wythe of brick
 Joint terms
– collar, bed, and head
Joint Finishes
 Selected
–
–
–
–
based on
appearance
shadow patterns
water drainage
surface
endurance
Brick Walls
 Cavity
– space between 2
wythe of bricks
– airspace
– filled with grout &
steel rebar
 Grout
– sand, cement, and
small aggregate
– sloppy solution
poured in cavity
Concrete Block
 Block
Dimensions
– width x height x length
 Example
– Nominal
– Net
8 x 8 x 16
7-5/8 x 7-5/8 x 15-5/8
Concrete Block
 Also
called Molded Concrete Units
 Materials
– portland cement, sand, aggregates (90% by
weight) and water
 Cores
– Air spaces in concrete block
– Used for reinforcement/insulation
 Compression
strength
– 700 to 1800 psi (pounds per square inch)
Concrete Block Types
 Standard
(8 x 8 x 16) nominal
– Width variations
» 4”
» 6”
» 8”
» 10”
» 12”
Concrete Block Types
 Sash
block also
called a Jamb
block
 Width variations
– 6”, 8”, 10”, 12”
 Slot
design
– slot on end allows
for attachment of
metal or wood
door and
windows frames
Concrete Block Types
 Lintel
– U-shaped piece for
use over windows
& doors
 Width
variations
– 6”, 8”, 10”, 12”
Concrete Block Types
 Bond
block
– notch on top to
allow for
horizontal
reinforcing
 Width
variations
– 6”, 8”, 10”, 12”
Concrete Block Types
 Cap
or paving unit
– Used to cap off the open unit at the top of a wall
Problems with Masonry
 Efflorescence
– surface discoloration
– caused by water-soluble salts in cement which
are sulfates of sodium
– and caused by insoluble carbonates from
continuous water penetration over a long
period of time
– occurs during high-humidity and lowtemperature conditions
– high chance happening with grouted walls
Construction Considerations
 Masonry
is poor in insulation (R) value
– add rigid insulation or fill with insulation
 Think
Modular
– all block and opening width dimensions are
multiples of 8”
– eliminates cutting
– reduces costs
Brick Representation in Section
Simplest
Cavity
Detailed
Which symbol used depends on office practice and/or detail scale.
Block Sections
don’t use
 B - military
 C-F - supported
by various
organizations
 Symbol used
depends on scale
of detail
A -
 Create
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
the following details for sheet S-2:
1/S-2
2/S-2
3/S-2
4/S-2
5/S-2
6/S-2
7/S-2
HINT: Look through the class architecture folder again!!!!!!
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