Class Notes 1865-1920 Foreign Affairs

Class Notes
1865-1920 Foreign Affairs
See Unit VII parts 1,2,3
For detailed explanations
Imperialism Post 1850
New Markets
 Natural Resources
 Business profits (labor)
 World Power Status
 Spread Democracy
 Was the campaign issue in 1900 after
Spanish-American War
 McKinley v Bryan
Justification for Imperialism
Manifest Destiny
 Social Darwinism
 Mahon’s The Influence of Sea Power upon
 Wake
 Samoa…Pago Pago…Tripartite
Methods of obtaining land
Purchase (Louisiana v Alaska)
– Seward’s Folly
Annexation (Texas v Hawaii)
– Cleveland, McKinley
War (Mex.-Am. v Sp.-Am and treaties)
– Treaty of Paris: Philippines, Puerto Rico,
Guam, Cuba
Philippines the farthest and least
likely to become part of the U.S.
War 1898-1902
 Emilio Aquinaldo
 Taft…1st civilian governor
Jones Act
 July 4, 1946 independence
The Teller Amendment…a problem
 Platt Amendment in Cuba’s constitution
– Could not get into impossible debt to other
– Could not lease, sell part of itself to other
– Must accept U.S. intervention
– Must lease or sell harbors to U.S.
Puerto Rico
The Foraker Act
 1901 Downes v Bidwell
By 1917: U.S. Citizenship, no tariff, no
passport required.
 1952: Operation Bootstrap: federal funds
for Puerto Rico
Latin America
1895 Boundary dispute: British Guinea v
Cleveland sent an American Boundary
commission to settle the issue
Pan-American Union
Blaine’s claim to fame
 Sec. of State (Garfield, Arthur)
U.S. a leader in the Western Hemisphere
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe
When a Latin American country is guilty of
wrongdoing, the U.S. would intervene to
make it right
Dominican Republic
 Haiti
 Nicaragua
 Caused much L.A. resentment
During U.S. Civil War Mexico acquired
debt to France
France occupied Mexico (Napoleon III
sent French troops and Maximillian as
U.S. Monroe Doctrine and troops
U.S. Investments in Mexico
 Madero
 Huerta
 Caranza
 Poncho Villa
Issue with Huerta
He murdered Madero and Wilson would
not be friendly
So..Incident: USS Dolphin and apologies
 Fighting at Tampico Bay
Settled by ABC Powers
Snubbed Wilson (U.S. not popular with
Mexican people)
 Poncho Villa …talks with Bryan
British needed Mexican oil but did not
want to offend U.S.
Finally U.S. recognized Carranza
Trouble with Poncho Villa
Panama Canal
Necessary for the efficiency of the U.S.
The Oregon in Sp.-Am. War
 Chose Panama for low grade
 Needed locks for water levels
 Took 7 years
 Then U.S. fixated on securing canal
1850 Clayton- Bulwar with Brits
 1901 Hay Poncefote with Brits
Deal with Lesseps Co. (French)
 Then Hay-Herran Treaty (with Columbia)
Then Columbians reneged
Panama Revolution and
The U.S. Nashville and help from Lesseps
 Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty with Panama:
– 10 million up front
– 250,000 each year for 99 years
Panama Canal
Much LA resentment re Columbian rights
 British mad as U.S. ships did not have to
pay toll
 Gorgas mosquito problem
 Goethal chief engineer
Black workers
 Vital to the defense of W. Hem.
1844 U.S. special trading privileges
 Then Europeans too
 Europeans: Spheres of Influence
– Manchuria: Russia and Japan
– Brits: port cities (Hong Kong)
– French: IndoChina
Open Door Policy
John Hay and Open Door Notes
A radical departure from traditional
(isolationist) U.S. Foreign Policy
Boxer Rebellion 1901
Herbert Hoover
 Reparations
1854 U.S. sent guns and gifts
 Japan opened ports to U.S.
 Then to other Europeans
Then Menji Restoration
War 1894-95
Japan v China
Japan got Formosa
 Korea gained independence
War Japan v Russia 1904-05
Over Manchuria
 Treaty of Portsmouth (TR)
Japan wanted: Manchuria, Korea, Money,
Sakhalin Island
Japan got Korea and Manchuria (sphere of
influence and ½ of Sakhalin Island
Bad Blood
Anti-American riots in Tokyo
 U.S. Press “Yellow Peril”
 San Francisco School Board
With TR: Gentleman’s Agreement
 With TR: Root-Tahira Agreemen
 Taft: Dollar Diplomacy
Causes WWI
Primary: Nationalism and Imperialism
Secondary: France and revenge, Russia
and warm water port, Arms Race, Balkans
a Powder keg, System of Alliances
System of Alliances
Triple Alliance (or Central Powers)
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
(satellites: Ottoman Empire & Bulgaria)
Triple Entente (or Allied Powers) Britain,
France and Russia (satellite Serbia)
Direct Cause
Austrian heir, Archduke Ferdinand and
wife were touring Sarajevo (recently
annexed into Austro-Hungarian Empire)
was assassinated by a Serbian student,
Gavrillo Princip
Then What Happened?
Austria went after Serbia
 Russia mobilized to protect ally, Serbia
 Germany declared war on Russia and its
ally, France
 German troops marched through neutral
 England declared war on Gemany and
Italy, Japan, Ottomans, Bulgaria, etc
U.S. entered late in the war
 Russia will drop out to continue revolution
 Italy dropped out of triple Alliance early
and joined Triple Entente later
WWI and the U.S.
Proclamation of neutrality and violations
 German Uboats and neutrals:
– 1915 The Lusitania
– 1916 The Sussex
England’s blockade awfully close to U.S.
 Scandinavian countries
Herbert Hoover and the Committee for the
Relief of Belgium
The Great Humanitarian
Trade = Economic Prosperity
Trade with allies = economic prosperity
1914 $824 million
 1916 $3.2 Billion
Shut off from trade with Central powers
but England and France were essential
Bryan (Sec. of State) Resigned
After Wilson urged Congress to increase
military spending
Peace and Preparedness
 TR “Weasel Words”
Election 1916
Wilson gave an implied promise to stay out of
the war “Peace and Preparedness”
TR: Weasel Words
Vote for Wilson. He kept up out of the war
 Election 1916: (Dem) Wilson 277
(Reps) Hughes 254
One of the smallest margins in history to that point
Wilson’s 14 Points
Points 1-5 Elimination of the general
causes of war
 Points 6-13 Self-determination for nations
 Point 14: League of Nations
Wilson wanted the above to be
incorporated into the treaty ending the
Leading the U.S. into War
February 1917 German minister warned that UBoats would sink all ships (neutrals too) in a
broad zone around England without warning
Late February 1917 Zimmerman Cable
Germany to Mexico “If the U.S. entered the
European war and IF Mexico would go to war
with U.S. THEN Mexico would gain lost lands to
the North (SW U.S…Treaty of G.H.)
April 1917
Wilson to Congress:
– Lusitania
– Sussex
– Zimmerman cable
Use the war as a lasting vehicle to world
March 1917
Russian Revolution
 Saved the U.S. embarrassment of alliance
with despot
 Kerensky government was more
republican (Menshvik)
 But civil war in Russia continued
 Oct 1918 Romanov’s killed…Bolshevik
takeover and Russia dropped out
Brits in trouble
Chief service of the U.S. navy: to guard ships
transporting troops
U.S. and Brits: anti-sub mines in North Sea
 Invention of depth charge
German U-Boats DID NOT prevent U.S. from
taking an active part in the war
US Mobilization Awesome
May 1917 Selective Service Act: All men
21-30 subject to the draft…later 18-45
 6 months training
 3 million drafted
 2 million volunteers
Sgt. York: most decorated man in war
The End of the War
By October 1918 Germany pushed back
to won borders
 By end of Oct, Germany asked for peace
terms (based on 14 Points)
 War ended 11th hour of the 11th day of the
11th month 1918
The War at Home
War funded by: Bonds & taxes
Luxury taxes for the first time
 War cost $10 Billion (1915 federal budget
$1 billion)
 Salaried classes benefitted least
 Women stepped in to fill men’s jobs and
were rewarded later with the vote
Federal Agencies to run the War
War Industries Board
 Fuel Administration
 RR Administration
 War Labor Board
 Food Administration
Controls of Amendment I
1917 Espionage Act severe punishments
to prevent spying and disloyalty
Up to $10,000 fine and 20 years in jail for
aiding the enemy or obstructing recruiting
or the post master
Controls of Amendment 1
1918 Sedition Act could not utter, print, write or
publish anything disloyal, profane, scurrilous or
abusive about the government, constitution or
army and navy uniforms
Also included criticism of YMCA and Red Cross
 Debs got 10 years for anti-war speech
 Goldman The Spirit of ‘76
Other Stuff
Popular Songs: Over There, Pack up Your
Civil Liberty violations: Hyphenated
Specifically, German-Americans Suffered
Liberty Cabbage, etc
Peace Conference at Versailles
Wilson: No Republicans, Not a seasoned
 Did not get points 1-13 due to earlier
secret treaties. Did get League of Nations
 England: Lloyd George
 France: Clemenceau
 Italy: Orlando Left early, furious
The Treaty and Problems
Britain and France wanted harsh terms
 U.S. refused reparations
Germany lost territory, colonies, paid
 Austria-Hungary lost 2/3 of land
 Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland…German)
 Poland Independent and divided Germany
End of the War
At Home: Republicans Isolationist: would not
ratify Treaty of Versailles. Did not want to
belong to the League of Nations (Lodge)
Liberals were disillusioned with the Treaty and
with Wilson
Wilson was arrogant, stubborn and had a stroke
The Human Cost of the War
10 Million lives lost:
– Russia 1,700,000
– France 1,357,000
– Brits 908,000
– Germany 1,800,000
– Austria 1,200,000
– Turkey 325,000
– U.S. 112,000
The Spanish Flu
20,000,000 additional lives 1918-1919
 Pandemic