Information Technology - Lesson Portal

Introduction to
Information Technology
Introduction to Information Technology
Introduction to Information Technology prepares students with
the knowledge and background of the different
computer areas and careers. In this course, students will be
introduced to topics dealing with hardware,
software, networking, interactive media, telecommunication,
personal technologies, and new and emerging
devices and technologies.
Introduction to Information Technology
What is Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and
telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit
and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or
other enterprise. - A term that encompasses all forms of
technology used to create, store, exchange and utilize
information in its various forms including business data,
conversations, still images, motion pictures and multimedia
presentations .
Introduction to Information Technology
The term Information Technology (IT)
was coined by Jim Domsic of Michigan in November 1981.
Domsic created the term to modernize the outdated phrase
"data processing".
Introduction to Information Technology
History of Information Technology
The basic concept of Information Technology can be traced to the World
War II alliance of the military and industry in the development of
electronics, computers, and information theory. After the 1940s, the
military remained the major source of research and development funding
for the expansion of automation to replace manpower with machine
Introduction to Information Technology
The term "computer", in use from the early 17th century
(the first known written reference dates from 1613), meant
"one who computes": a person performing mathematical
calculations, before electronic computers became commercially
Introduction to Information Technology
History of Information Technology
Since the 1950s, four generations of computers have evolved. Each
generation reflected a change to hardware of decreased size but increased
capabilities to control computer operations.
-First generation used vacuum tubes
-Second used transistors
-Third used integrated circuits
-Fourth used integrated circuits on a single computer chip.
Advances in artificial intelligence that will minimize the need for complex
programming characterize the fifth generation of computers, still in the
experimental stage.
Introduction to Information Technology
History of Information Technology
The first commercial computer was the UNIVAC I, developed by John
Eckert and John W. Mauchly in 1951. It was used by the Census Bureau to
predict the outcome of the 1952 presidential election.
For the next twenty-five years, mainframe computers were used in large
corporations to do calculations and manipulate large amounts of
information stored in databases.
Supercomputers were used in science and engineering, for designing
aircraft and nuclear reactors, and for predicting worldwide weather
Minicomputers came on to the scene in the early 1980s in small
businesses, manufacturing plants, and factories.
Introduction to Information Technology
History of Information Technology
Introduction to Information Technology
History of Information Technology
Mainframe Computers vs Supercomputers
Mainframes deal with problems constrained by input/output and which demand reliability
above all else.
Mainframes process the large amounts of data that come into them from external sources,
such as credit card transactions or payroll processing.
Supercomputers are designed to work on types of problems whose primary constraint is
calculation speed.
Supercomputers conduct large amounts of very fast and complex calculations on data stored
in memory.
Tianhe-2, aka Milky Way 2
Tianhe-2, a supercomputer developed by China's National
University of Defense Technology, once more took home the title
as the world's fastest computer, with a performance of 33.86
petaflops (quadrillions of calculations per second) on the Linpack
FLOPS: Floating-point Operations Per Second)
Introduction to Information Technology
History of Information Technology
In 1975, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed
microcomputers. The market for microcomputers increased dramatically
when IBM introduced the first personal computer in the fall of 1981.
IBM Personal Computer model 5150
with IBM CGA monitor (model number 5153), IBM PC
keyboard, IBM 5152 printer and paper stand.
UCSD p-System
Intel 8088 @ 4.77 MHz
16 kB ~ 256 kB
1-channel PWM
Thank you!
“ The Only way to do great work is to love what you do ”
-Steve Jobs