Professional Development Schools National Conference March 12-14, 2009 Daytona Beach ROUNDS An innovative Way to Provide Pre-Service Teachers with Meaningful Opportunities for Observation and Mentorship Jane F. Zenger & Beth-Powers Costello University of South Carolina Traditional Pre-service Teacher Preparation • Observational learning experiences • Practicum & student teaching experiences • Mentoring opportunities for first-year teachers • Focus on “highly qualified teachers” (NCLB) To Better Meet Their Needs • Need for more in-depth • • reflection with Master teachers (individual & group) Need for observations at different phases of the teacher education program Need for exposure to a variety of teaching settings and pedagogical practices Project Background • Teacher Quality Partnership Enhancement • • • • Projects Between 2002 & 2008, project staff looked at programs aimed at improving clinical experiences for pre-service & first-year teachers. Staff studied successful programs in other parts of the country Training at Montclair State University on Rounds “Rounds” pilot was implemented in 7 PDS schools Educational “Rounds” Involve: • Classroom observations of a master teacher with • • • selected group of pre-service teachers Debriefing session with teacher & university supervisor immediately follows the observation Reflective discourse between teachers, students, & university faculty Second tier (Master/Ph. D. level) rounds may involve training & use of ethnographic methodology * Based on Thomas Del Prete’s model of adapting “medical rounds” into teacher ed. programs The U.S.C. “Rounds” Process • Rounds conducted in • • • established PDS and potential PDS sites Identified Partners & Scheduled Rounds Rounds Observation Session (45-60 min) Rounds Debriefing Session (30-45 min) Demographics & Methodology • Conducted over 8• year period Approximately 120 pre-service teachers completed Rounds in P-12th grade classes Methodology • Participants were asked to complete a “Rounds” questionnaire • Completed questionnaires were analyzed for themes (Boyatzis, 1998) such as motivation & grouping • Thematic analysis allowed researcher to identify saliency among themes and to quantify themes Types of Rounds 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Secondary education master-level students Middle school master-level students Undergraduate elementary education majors Undergraduate early childhood majors Special Education majors Business education majors Community/Technical college students who have indicated a desire to matriculate to a four-year college and major in education Whole class groups making school-teacher comparisons Rounds Evolution ( 2002-2005) Secondary Content Classes MAT Cross Disciplinary ( with Arts & Sci. Faculty) Middle School Special groups MAT and Undergrads ( AAP, Resource, ESL) Elementary MAT and Undergrads (Master/NBC teachers Resource and multi-age) Rounds Evolution ( 2005-2009) Practicum Experiences (all levels) Career Education Special groups MAT Business Education Course cultural experiences Embedded in courses (Resource & Special Ed.) Technical College Students Pre-Professional Program (Induction Year Teacher & Science Lab) Secondary Content Classes MAT Cross Disciplinary ( with Arts & Science Faculty) Elementary MAT and Undergrads (Master/NBC teachers, resource and multi-age) Technical College Students Pre-Professional Program (Induction Year Teacher & Science Lab) Classroom Management/Structure Theme N Percentag e The learning environment 19 22.35% The teacher was engaging and/or encouraged participation 19 22.35% Moving around/attentive to students, active classroom 12 14.12% Modeling, giving examples, demonstrating behavior 11 12.94% Specific pedagogical practice 9 10.59% Being positive/positive reinforcement 8 9.41% Grouping students 5 5.88% Needs improvement/no control 2 2.35% 85 100.00% TOTAL Comments/Concerns Theme N Percentag e Pedagogy issues (repeating, modeling, boys & girls, disabilities) 21 27.63% Disciplining techniques, students' behavior 17 22.37% Engaging students, being positive, creating community 17 22.37% Organization, preparation, and lessons 8 10.53% Learning environment 6 7.89% Content issues 6 7.89% Not impressed 1 1.32% 76 100.00% TOTAL Biggest Impression Theme N Percentag e Pedagogical practice 18 28.13% Teacher's personality, personal traits 16 25.00% Students' behavior, discipline 13 20.31% Students' work, involvement, engagement 12 18.75% Content ability/practice 4 6.25% Not impressed 1 1.56% 64 100.00% TOTAL Perception of Rounds’ value Theme N Percentage Yes 73 94.81% Partially 3 3.90% No 1 1.30% 77 100.00% TOTAL Why Rounds are beneficial Theme N Percentage See diversity of teachers and pedagogical practices 34 47.22% Good idea but change timing 17 23.61% Classroom management techniques 7 9.72% Good for career changers 5 6.94% Did not specify 5 6.94% Good exposure to ESOL, special ed students 4 5.56% 72 100.00% TOTAL Elementary Rounds Exemplars 1. “They allow students to observe a variety of instructional styles/strategies that allow future educators to examine strengths and weaknesses of differing areas within a classroom. These areas include: behavior management, teaching strategies, lesson plans, classroom presence, and accommodations for children with special needs.” 2. “There is no one way to be an effective teacher. It is beneficial to see a variety of teachers at work in their classrooms. Individual personalities play a role in teaching style.” 3. “Rounds allows for the opportunity to see other grades and settings that interns might not normally see (i.e., Resource, Arts, and P.E.).” 4. “Debriefing sessions are beneficial because insight is gained as to why things are done they way they are (behavior management, teaching techniques, etc.).” Secondary Rounds Exemplars 1. “Rounds can enhance the required seminar 2. 3. 4. because interns are allowed to interact with more teachers in different settings.” “It allows interns to ask teachers about their teaching experiences and how they deal with various conflicts.” “Rounds allow students to observe different teaching methods other than their coaching teacher’s methods.” “It is important to see how teachers of other content areas conduct their classrooms.” S.W.O.T. Analysis Findings (Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats) • Created opportunities to engage more master • • • teachers at PDS schools who otherwise might not participate in pre-service teacher preparation. Allowed master teachers to reflect and discuss their pedagogical practices. Permitted opportunities for students, teachers, & university faculty to collaborate in a learning environment. Follow-up conversations with new teachers indicated Rounds could continue to be beneficial. Conclusions • Pre-service teachers overwhelming found rounds to be a beneficial component of their classroom experiences & gave them diversity of classroom experiences not always gained with one or two cooperating teachers. • Adds to research suggesting pre-service teacher interns who observe a variety of experienced master teachers benefit greatly and have enhanced teaching skills by observing and debriefing about better teaching and learning experiences. • Is an inexpensive way to foster learning & professional development. • Can be used for induction year teachers as well as other professionals within the school context. Induction Year Teachers • Teaching students who speak English as a • • • • • second language Working with students in special education Focusing on a method of implementing curricula Understanding a learning style, process or a particular teaching practice Building knowledge in a content area Observing classes across grades and disciplines Other Professionals • Teachers who have transferred into a school from another community • School Board members • New administrators • Other experienced teachers observing particular pedagogical practices of their colleagues thereby fostering hands-on professional development Rounds embedded into a course • • • • • Advantages Comparison of two school settings Helps students develop schema for teacher’s management and teaching styles Gives professor a “springboard” for ongoing discussion throughout the semester Shows that good teaching can take many forms Helps develop important skill of reflection Rounds embedded into a course Advantages • Gives students preview for action research conducting ethnographic observations ( Frank, Carolyn) • Helps students focus on ways diversity and culture are approached in different settings • Builds community within the class as students compare observations and ideas Examples from different schools (Student #11 Management Q #2) • • School Green “She never once raised her voice. If a child said something rude to another child, “she taught them to say,' I like you but I don’t like what you just said’”. • School Yellow “The classroom management was a very strict environment. The children were to do each little thing the teacher said and nothing on their own.” Examples from different schools (Student #10 Management Q #2) School Green • “…she used a timer when they were independently working which gave them control over how much time they had left to work on the assignment.” • “…she used a yardstick as a behavior stick. She puts clothespins on in and if a child was misbehaving she would move his or her clothespin down to a different color.” School Yellow • “It got a little noisy, so Dr. Gray rang her bell. She told them they needed to quiet down and they did.” • “After about ten minutes, she rang the bell and told that it was time to wrap up.” • “She then brought them back to the circle, so that they could all share their work.” Examples from different schools (Student #9 Management Q #2) • School Green “Throughout the lesson the teachers walk around the room and help students who need assistance.” School Yellow • “When first entering the classroom it seemed very hectic but after walking around the room I realized the students were in different centers.” • “…she frequently made comments like, ‘I like the way the rest of you are working’.” • “…had a CD playing.” Examples from different schools (Student #9 Comments Q #3) School Green • “…the teacher used a behavior stick. I asked what the punishment was and she said she took away recess time.” • “…when the whole table was doing something good they got a penny in their jar and whatever table had the most received a prize at the end of the week.” School Yellow • “I was curious about the strategies the teacher used to tell the students how to sound out words….she said she got the strategies from her methods courses and textbooks.” Examples from different schools (Student #2 Comment Q #3) School Green • “I really loved her classroom. It was so cozy and I felt comfortable in there. • The classroom was huge and the children had plenty (of) room to move around. • She had the children divided by higher and lower.” • • • School Yellow “She starts off by doing a large groups lesson…then they are split into small groups based on their needs. …she did not have many discipline problems in her class, which is unusual. I think that it is great that she is able to get through to the children in a way that they look up to her and respect her.” Examples from different schools (Student #3 Comment Q #3) School Green • “I was so impressed with the way the children were so excited about math! I thought the teacher did such a good job at getting their interest! • “In the room there were signs that say…’Why do I need to know the days of the week and the months of the year?’…it explains to kids what they learn is purposeful and meaningful in their lives.” School Yellow • “The sign in book was a list of the students names and to sign in that day they had to write words ending in –ack and –ock. I asked…if this was a form of assessment and she said it was.” Examples from different schools (Student #10 Impressions Q#4) School Green • “I loved the teacher’s positive attitude and energy. The children were so well behaved, and I could tell that they adored her.” School Yellow • “I really enjoyed (the teacher’s) temperament and the way she interacts with the children. I could see that she respected each and every one of them, and made them feel like they were so important to her.” Examples from different schools (Student #8 Impressions Q#4) School Green • “I was very impressed with how the teacher never raised her voice. She told us later that she thinks the children react better when she stays calm rather than when she raises their voice to them.” School Yellow • “What impressed me the most in during my time in the classroom was the way the children worked together. The desks were placed in groups, which I think gave the children a chance to learn from each other.” Examples from different schools (Student #3 Impressions Q#4) School Green • “I was so impressed with the way the children were so excited about math!” School Yellow • “The entire classroom impressed me! It was amazing how much I saw, observed, and learned in 30 minutes…I feel so lucky that I was able to view her teaching methods, even if it was for only 30 minutes!” Ethnographic Eyes: A Teacher’s Guide to Classroom Observation Frank, Carolyn • Develop lenses for seeing patterns and practices of life within classrooms p. xi • Create a base for informed action, not based on personal views but on real observations…p. 2 • Underlying belief systems ( “table leaders” used to collect/pass out papers indicates student responsibility…p.3 Ethnographic Eyes cont. • Learning to describe details and characteristics, not to interpret, evaluate and prejudge.. P. 3 • Field notes as facts or attitudes ( use of cultural phases) • Side by side note-taking and note-making Ethnographic Eyes cont. Specific details Interpretation • A child is working at • The class is self the computer and 14 students at their desks directed and each is working on their own schedule. Ethnographic Eyes cont. Inquiry into Observation: • Observe from different perspectives try taking notes as a parent or principal • Observe the same time ( class) several times- look for differences • Observe the same kind of class ( HS history or 3rd grade)- Different teachers Ethnographic Eyes cont. Advanced ethnographic observations • Visiting neighborhoods and making maps • Learning “teacher talk” such as “I need your listening ears” p.27 • Having teachers start with a “grand tour” – An overview of the class, day, year, staffing p.33 -Making a list of classroom patterns Moving Observations Observing a single student or small group Examples: • follow a group of students from an ESL class or resource class into a regular class setting ( inclusion methods) • Observe a student who has difficulty in math but excels at chorus or drama REFLECTIONS • Knowing what you know (Zenger) • Knowing when you have a shift ( Zenger) • Learning to think from different: – – – – – – – Cultural Perspectives Multiple perspectives Member’s perspective Over time perspective Language Perspective Teaching Perspective Learning perspcetive ( Frank, C. pp.94-99) Additional Reading Crews, Tena B. & Zenger, Jane F. (2006). A Well “Rounded” Inter Business Education Digest, Issue XV, 13-29. Frank, Carolyn. (1999). Ethnographic Eyes: A Teacher’s Guide Classroom Observation. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Reiman, Alan J. & Thies-Sprinthall, Lois. (1998). Mentoring and Supervision for Teacher Development. N York: Lon McEntee, Grace Hall, et al. (2003). At the Heart of Teaching A Guide to Reflective Practice. New York: Teacher’s College For more information please contact Dr. Jane F. Zenger [email protected] Dr. Beth Powers-Costello [email protected] College of Education – ITE University of South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina 29208 • Materials, References & Literature Reviews are available & can be emailed!