Computer Fundamentals

Computer Fundamentals
IC3 Chapter 1
Computers and Computer Systems
List 5 Ways You Use Computers In
Everyday Life
• Educational institutions use computers to
enhance instruction in all disciplines and to
provide online instructions
• Video game systems transport you to an
imaginary world
• Using ATM’s, you can withdraw money from
your bank account from almost any location in
the world
List 5 Ways You Use Computers In
Everyday Life (cont)
• On television and at the movies, you can see
instant replays in sports or amazing special
effects that take you to outer space
• Mobile computing, text messaging, e-mail,
and online audio/video conferencing allow
you to communicate with people at almost
any location
Question 2
2. Computers have been around for more than
____ years and were developed in the late
____ and early 1950s. They were designed
initially for use by the ____ and the _____.
• 60
• 1940’s
• Military
• Government
Question 3
3. What did Dr. Ted Hoff develop in 1971?
• Microprocessor
Question 4
4. Who built the first Apple computers in 1976?
• Steve Jobs
• Steve Wozniak
Question 5
5. In 1980, Bill Gates worked with ____ to
develop the ____ ____ ____ (DOS) for the
IBM PC which became the PC of choice for
• Disk Operating System
Question 6
A computer is an ____ that receives data, ____
data, stores data, and ____ a result.
• Electronic Device
• Processes
• Produces
Question 7
A Computer System Includes:
Question 8
The Hardware Includes:
• Wires
• Transistors
• Circuits
Question 9
9. _____ devices such as printers and monitors
are also called hardware.
• Peripheral
Question 10
10. ____ consists of the instructions or programs
for controlling the computer.
• Software
Question 11
11. ____ is text, numbers, sound, images, or
• Data
Question 12
12. List the four steps (in order) for the
information processing cycle:
Inputs Data, Processes Data, Stores Information
and Data, Outputs Information
Question 13
• 13. Listed below are several parts of a
computer. Next to each part, determine
which function it performs. (I, P, S, O).
Keyboard _____
Monitor _____
Flash Drive_____
Question 14
14. A computer performs only two operations:
• Arithmetic Computations
• Logical Operations (AND, OR, NOT)
Six Types of General
Purpose Computers
1. Desktop and Notebook
2. Server - Used by small to medium sized
companies and can support a few hundred
users. (File Server {Network}, Database
Server, Web Server)
3. Mobile Devices
Six Types of General
Purpose Computers
4. Tablet PC
5. Mainframe Computer - Used by large
companies, a large, expensive computer
capable of supporting hundreds or even
thousands of users
6. Supercomputer - Fastest type, government
agencies and large corporations used for
specialized applications to process enormous
amounts of data
Other Computer Devices
Embedded Computers
Portable Music and Media Players
Computer Game Systems
Electronic Book Readers
17. What is the CPU?
• Brains of the Computer. Contains millions of
switches and pathways that help your
computer make important decisions.
17. What is
Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
• One of Two Parts of the CPU: Performs
arithmetic computations and logical
operations (addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division). These determine
what you appears on your screen.
17. What is the Control Unit?
• One of Two Parts of the CPU: The boss.
Coordinates all of the processors activities.
Question 18
18. The smallest unit of measurement is a
• Bit
Question 19
19. A byte is made up of ______ bits.
• 8
20. Complete the Table
Number of Bytes
K or KB
Question 21
21. _____ is found on the motherboard. The
easiest way to remember memory is in terms
of short term or long term memory.
• Memory
Question 22
22. Memory on the motherboard is ____. This is
called RAM or ____.
• Short-Term
• Random Access Memory
Question 23
23. When a computer is turned off or loses
power, whatever is stored in the RAM will
• Disappear
Question 24
24. Another type of memory you will find on the
motherboard is called ROM which stands for ____.
This type of chip ___ that are needed for computer
operations. A computer can _____ from a ROM chip,
but it cannot write or store data on the chip.
• Read Only Memory
• Stores Specific Instructions
• Read
Question 25
25. Magnetic Storage Devices
• As disk rotates, it is read by an
electromagnetic read/write head
• Data is stored by numbered tracks
• Data is stored in a File Allocation Table (FAT)
Question 25 (cont)
25. Hard Disk
• Can be internal or external
• Data Access is Faster
• More Storage Space than removable Drives
Question 25 (cont)
25. Magnetic Tape
• Primarily used to back-up files
• Come in a variety of shapes and sizes
• Used to store large amounts of data – Process
is slow. Used as a back-up to a hard drive
Question 25 (cont)
25. 3 ½ Inch disks or Zip Disks
• Coated with a Hard Plastic Case
• Limited storage Capacity
• Replaced now by USB storage devices
Question 25 (cont)
25. Optical Storage Devices
• Use Laser technology to
read and write
• Storage devices referred to as Discs
• CD’s and DVD’s are available in ROM, R, or RW
Question 25 (cont)
25. Solid State Storage Media
• Referred to as Removable Media
• Done completely electronically, no mechanical parts
• Used for cameras, PDA’s, music players, Flash Drives
Question 25 (cont)
25. Network Drives
• Hard or Tape Drive stored located on a computer
other than the user’s local system
• Connected to Network and shared by multiple users
• Can be accessed from any computer on the network
Question 26
26. List rules for caring for storage media:
1. Avoid Extreme Temperatures
2. Keep away from magnets
3. When handling DVD’s and CD’s, hold at the
4. Remove from computer when not in use and
store properly