AP TEST REVIEW Session 3 1450 – 1750 C.E.

Session 4
1450 – 1750
Global Interactions
Overall Themes
• Absolutism: centralized governments with a very
powerful monarch
• Global Trade: now the Americas are involved and it is
truly GLOBAL (1492 changed everything)
• Core-Periphery Theory on full display
• Rise of Europe….Decline of China (esp. 19th century)
• Unfree or Coercive labor (bolsters economies of core
• Religious Rivalries
– Catholic vs. Protestant in Europe; Islam vs. Christianity in
SW Asia and Africa; Hinduism vs. Islam in S. Asia
• Decline of Nomads (such as the Mongols)
What happened right before the era
of 1450-1750?
• Population decline and growth
– Black Plague caused decline, while improvements in
technology and agriculture brought pop. growth
• Feudalism in Japan and Europe
• Yuan Dynasty in China and Kievan Russia under
Mongol Rule (Golden Horde)
• Rise of the Inca and Aztec Empires in the Americas
• Mali (western Africa) at its height
More of what happened right
before the era of 1450-1750
• Delhi Sultanate in India: the continuing Rise of
Islam, the Decline of Buddhism, competing power
• Founding of the Ottoman Empire (1281)
• Continued decline of the Byzantine Empire
• Trade routes in Mediterranean, Indian Ocean,
South China Sea, Trans-Saharan and across the
Eurasian steppes keep the world connected
The Renaissance
• Started in the Italian city-states in the
15th century, spread to all of Europe
• A time of learning and appreciation for
the arts (“rebirth”)
• Embracing of classical cultures of
Greece and Rome (architecture,
philosophy, art, drama)
• Flourishing trade in Europe allowed
wealthy people to spend money on the
arts, and it is a fair statement to say that
trade made the Renaissance happen!
• Art reflected beauty of human form and
architecture reflected classical styles of
the Greeks and Romans
• Michelangelo, da Vinci, Rafael, etc.
The Printing Press
• Johann Gutenberg (1450)
invented the printing
press in Germany
• Allowed for the
reproduction of literature,
the Bible, etc. into the
vernacular which spread
literacy and added to the
momentum of the
Protestant Reformation
• Also allowed for the ideas
and learning of the
Renaissance to keep on
going as more and more
people were reading
• Technological Innovation!
• Copernicus and Galileo proved
that the Earth was not the
center of the universe
• Heliocentric Universe was
considered heretical by the
Church because it contradicted
Church teaching about the
centrality of humanity in God’s
• This occurred in the 15th and
16th centuries
• Newton “discovered” gravity
The Enlightenment
• Political philosophers such as
John Locke and Jean-Jacques
Rousseau taught that
government comes from the
consent of the governed
(citizens have a say in their
government, and when
government oversteps their
bounds the citizens should do
something about it)
• Locke inspires leaders of the
American Revolution and
Rousseau inspires the French
• Challenged the Divine Right of
More Enlightenment…
• Thinkers like Voltaire encouraged
rational thinking and scientific reasoning
to take precedent over superstition and
• Religious toleration was a hallmark of
the Enlightenment
• “No opinion is worth burning your
neighbor for.”
– Voltaire
1368-1644 CE
Took power from Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty
Revival of Chinese culture & Removal of Mongol Influence
Neo-Confucian (strict social structure)
– Emperor > Scholar Gentry > Farmers > Artisans > Merchants
• Population Explosion (champa rice and irrigation methods
helped population grow)
• Silk, paper, porcelain in high demand in Europe allowing for a
trade advantage for China and a trade deficit for Europe…this
will come back to haunt China later!
• Active traders in Indian Ocean and South China Sea (junk ships)
• Traded with Europeans and Japanese for silver
• But for a while, the Ming Dynasty provided China with another golden
MING CHINA (continued)
• Reestablished the Civil Service Examinations
to restore meritocracy
• Censored certain writings
• Continued the subordination of youth to
elders and women to men (Confucian social
order was revived)
• Ming emperor Yongle sent out Zheng He on voyages throughout the
region on huge ships (junks)
• Then the Ming ended the explorations and destroyed the fleets; this
prevented the Chinese from becoming a colonizing power and led to
their isolationism (which will eventually lead to their being dominated
by other powers)
• The Ming converted to a silver-based
monetary system, using Japan and then Spain
for silver for their official currency
• Made Spain (and New Spain) wealthy along
with the shoguns in Japan
• Inflation resulted because of too much silver,
damaging the economy of China
• Ming were then conquered by Manchu (Qing)
after numerous rebellions and famine
• Took control from the Ming in 1644
and ruled China for almost 300
• Manchurians in leadership role but
kept much of Chinese tradition in
• Civil Service examinations were vital
to run the empire
• Conquered large amounts of
territory (good news in the
beginning, but what goes up…)
• Traded with Europeans but
maintained power in the
relationship (Macartney Mission is a
prime example)
• Prior to the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan had opened up
trade with Portugal and the Dutch
• Christianity was brought in along with muskets
• Eventually Japan would turn against Christianity and Western
influences and become isolationist for centuries, fearing a
loss of their traditional ways and their autonomy
• In 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu created new capital at Edo
(Tokyo) and took power from the emperor, instituting
a strict social hierarchy
• Seclusion of Japan began, fearing a takeover by the
more powerful Europeans
• Some trade continued but Japanese contact with the
outside world was very limited
• Christianity outlawed, as were certain books
• Buddhism and Shinto were big religions as
Christianity was persecuted for being foreign
Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal
1281 - 1914
• Osman and the Turks invade and establish empire to
challenge the Byzantine Empire (conquered them)
• Ruled over Greece, Turkey, North Africa and Middle
• Constantinople becomes Istanbul
• Hagia Sofia becomes a mosque
• Jews and Christians allowed to practice faith, but…
• As the empire grew, so did religious persecution
(Janissaries were children of conquered Christians
who were turned into military slaves)
• Under Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman
Empire experienced a “Golden Age” due to artistic
• Competed with the Safavids to their east
• Land based empire (controlled Mediterranean for a while but
allowed Europeans to dominate sea trade eventually)
• Led by Sultan (absolute monarch with both political and
religious authority)
• Bureaucracy in place (viziers had power)
• Declined due to sultans neglecting power, too much growth,
corruption, inability to innovate with military and technology
• Janissaries were used for military
• Rivals of the Ottomans, ruled in
modern day Iran (Persia)
• Shia Islam dominates after their
leader, Ismail, forced the conversion
from Sunni Islam to Shi’ite Islam
• “Hidden Imam” expectation (like a
savior/messianic figure)
• Reliant on Europe for naval support
• Nomads from Central Asia
threatened and then conquered the
Safavid Empire
1526 - 1739
• Islamic leader Babur invaded and
conquered Northern India (Delhi
Sultanate was ruling at the time)
• Muslim Empire based on military
strength and strong economy (textiles)
• Akbar the Great stressed religious
tolerance, needing to win over largely
Hindu population
• Akbar married a Hindu princess and
then even tried creating a new religion
based on himself
• Relied on Europeans for naval support
• Taj Mahal built during Mughal Empire
• Seriously, you mean to tell me that all three
Gunpowder Empires let European powers
handle their naval support and sea trade in an
era of unprecedented global maritime trade
and imperialism?
Who’s the idiot
The Protestant Reformation
1517, Led by Martin Luther, a
Catholic monk who took a stand
against Church corruption (sale
of indulgences)
Started in Germany and spread to
France, the Netherlands, and
Led to decline in the hegemony of
the Roman Catholic Church and
religious wars in Europe (Thirty
Years’ War)
The Catholic Church responds
with the Council of Trent,
banning the sale of indulgences
but banning Protestant books
and thinking
Many new Christian
denominations started in Europe
Western Europe on the Rise
• As the Ming are pulling back and becoming
isolationist in nature, the powers of the
West are just beginning to explore their
world in order to conquer it…
• Prince Henry the Navigator explores western coastline of
Africa along with other explorers (seeking routes to Asia)
• Interested in trading ports as opposed to territorial gains
• Dominant in Indian Ocean trade as a result
• Major player in Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade early on
• Advanced naval technology: astrolabe, caravels, compass
The Reconquista had booted Islam from Iberian Peninsula
Power consolidated by Isabella’s marriage to Ferdinand
Backing of the Catholic Church (reciprocal relationship)
Looking to become dominant in trade (overcome Islamic
domination of Mediterranean), Spain backed Columbus in
voyages which led to “discovery” of New World
• Established colonies from North America to South America and
throughout Caribbean
• Wiped out Incas, Aztecs, and other tribes due to disease, slavery, and war
(remember Guns, Germs, and Steel)
• Transformation of Mit'a System (Inca Empire became slaves)
• Silver mines and relationship with China (made Spain wealthy)
• Demographic Impact: disease, death, creation of Mestizo and Mulatto
• Columbian Exchange brought plants, animals, disease to different
continents, changing the world forever
• Spain overextends itself with too many
colonies, lavish spending, and wars not won
• Britain defeats the Spanish Armada
• Britain and France are on the rise while Spain
is on the way down, although Spain still had
colonies around the world (Latin America,
• Netherlands and Portugal also in the mix with
trading companies
• King Henry VIII’s daughter Elizabeth ruled during a
true golden age in which England gained colonies,
defeated Spain in 1588, explored the world, and
enjoyed cultural success with Shakespeare
• Protestantism, especially Anglicanism, became
favored over Catholicism
• The Glorious Revolution peacefully replaced the
Catholic James II with the Protestant William and
Mary of the Netherlands, ensuring Anglican rulers for
a long time to come in Britain
• France was mostly Catholic but a Protestant group,
known as Huguenots, fought the Catholics for
control of France
• 1598, Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes which
created an environment of toleration
• King Louis XIV:“I am the State.”
– Revoked Edict of Nantes forcing many Huguenots
to leave France
– Built the impressive Palace of Versailles
– Territorial expansion in Canada and Caribbean
King Louis XIV and Versailles
THE DUTCH (Netherlands)
• Dutch East India Company active in North America
and the Caribbean
• Also active in Southeast Asia – spice trade
• Spanish Conquest of parts of North
America, all of Central America, and
most of South America
• Portugal in Brazil
• England and France in North America
• Population Impact: disease, racial mixing
creates Castas System (Peninsulares,
Creoles, etc.)
• Columbian Exchange
• Encomienda System enslaved indigenous
population (Mita)
• Mercantilism was the dominant economic
system (govt. sponsorship of private
• Mongol occupation (Golden Horde) stalled Russian unification
and development
• Ivan the Terrible: absolute rule and territorial expansion; makes
himself first CZAR (Caesar)
• Multicultural empire (many different ethnic groups were
conquered and this will make nationalism difficult for Russia in
the future)
• Russian Orthodox Church the dominant religion
• Peter the Great speeds up the Westernization process (goal: be
more like Europe in order to catch up to Europe)
• Most people were serfs (agricultural workers tied to the land) and
Russia will be the last European nation to end serfdom in the
Peter the Great
The Renaissance
The Scientific Revolution
The Enlightenment
Patronage of the Arts
Cultural and Intellectual
Developments (continued)
• The Renaissance, starting in Italy, saw a rebirth in the arts and
in learning in general (Michelangelo, da Vinci, etc.)
• The Reformation (Martin Luther) caused a split in the Catholic
Church and created a new denomination, Protestantism,
which spawned thousands of other denominations
• The Enlightenment (Locke, Rousseau) taught that kings did
not have absolute authority due a contract between ruler and
• The Scientific Revolution (Bacon, Newton, Galileo) changed
the way people saw their universe and rationalism and
scientific knowledge began to decrease the power of
superstition and non-scientific traditions
• The Protestant Reformation
• Neo-Confucianism in China
• Missionaries: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
spread to other lands because of missionary
Worried about remembering all
this stuff?
• You should be.
• This test is hard and you should
be studying in addition to
coming to the review sessions.
• Remember your Princeton
Review book? Use it.
• Beginning May 6th, come to my
room after school for essay
writing practice.
• Review your notes from these
sessions the next day.
AP Essay Prompts
Describe and explain continuities and changes
in religious beliefs and practices in ONE of the
following regions from 1450 to the present.
Sub-Saharan Africa
Latin America/Caribbean
For the period from 1500 to 1830, compare
North American racial ideologies and their
effects on society with Latin
American/Caribbean racial ideologies and
their effects on society.
Analyze the changes and continuities in
commerce in the Indian Ocean region from
1650 CE to 1750 CE
Within the period from 1450 to 1800,
compare the processes (e.g. political, social,
economic) of empire building in the Spanish
Empire with the empire building in ONE of the
The Ottoman Empire
The Russian Empire
DBQ over the silver trade (China, Spain,
Americas) from 16th century – 19th century
Analyze the social and economic
transformations that occurred in the Atlantic
world as a result of new contacts among
Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas
from 1492-1750.
Describe and analyze the cultural, economic,
and political impact of Islam on ONE of the
following regions between 1000 CE to 1750
CE. Be sure to discuss continuities as well as
West Africa
South Asia