2.3.2 Classification Objectives: Define keywords on classification Describe key features of the kingdoms Explain why new technology has replaced older systems for classification Key words: Binomial system – Classification – Phylogeny – Kingdom – Phylum – Class - Order – Family – Genus Species • • • • • • • • Ursus maritimus Carcharodon carcharias Canis lupus Aquila chrysaetos Felis silvestris Panthera leo Orcinus orca Panthera tigris Classification Why classify? Enables us to link organisms with similar characteristics into groups for easy reference Homo sapiens Genus Species Grouping organisms based on observable features Grouping organisms based probable evolutionary relationships What is this and why is it difficult to classify • Separate species evolving similar characteristics as their lifestyles are similar. • DNA is more reliable KINGDOM - largest group of organism sharing common features PHYLUM - Major subdivision of a kingdom CLASS - A subdivision of a phylum/ group of related orders ORDER – Subdivision of a class/group of related families FAMILY - Group of related genera/subdivision of an order. GENUS - Group of related species/subdivision of a family. SPECIES - A group of organism capable of breeding and producing fertile offspring Animalia Protoctista Plantae Fungi Prokaryotae • Multicellular • Non-photosynthetic • Eukaryotic • Nervous coordination Cnidarians, molluscs, annelids, arthropods, chordates • Multicellular • Photosynthetic • Eukaryotic • Cellulose cell walls Bryophyta, filicinophyta, angiospermophyta • Multicellular • Non-photosynthetic • Eukaryotic • Non-cellulose cell walls • Absorptive nutrition • Multinucleate hyphae • Spores without flagella • Often unicellular or assemblages of similar cells • Eukaryotic • Membrane bound nucleus • Neither fungi, plants nor Green algae, brown algae animals • Prokaryotic (no true nucleus) • No membrane-bound organelles • Lack 9 + 2 tubules Non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic bacteria Wolphin Zorse Leopon Liger • Based on the genes coding for the RNA that makes up ribosomes.