Esnoga Bet Emunah

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BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Esnoga Bet Emunah
Esnoga Bet El
4544 Highline Dr. SE
Olympia, WA 98501
United States of America
© 2015
http://www.betemunah.org/
E-Mail: [email protected]
102 Broken Arrow Dr.
Paris TN 38242
United States of America
© 2015
http://torahfocus.com/
E-Mail: [email protected]
Triennial Cycle (Triennial Torah Cycle) / Septennial Cycle (Septennial Torah Cycle)
Three and 1/2 year Lectionary Readings
Adar 02, 5775 – Feb 20/21, 2015
Third Year of the Triennial Reading Cycle
Seventh Year of the Shmita Cycle
Candle Lighting and Habdalah Times:
Amarillo, TX, U.S.
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 6:16 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 7:13 PM
Chattanooga, & Cleveland, TN, U.S.
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 6:11 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 7:07 PM
Miami, FL, U.S.
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 5:59 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 6:52 PM
San Antonio, TX, U.S.
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 6:09 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 7:03 PM
St. Louis, MO, U.S.
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 5:26 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 6:25 PM
Austin & Conroe, TX, U.S.
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 6:05 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 7:00 PM
Everett, WA. U.S.
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 5:21 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 6:28 PM
Murray, KY, & Paris, TN. U.S.
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 5:21 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 6:19 PM
Sheboygan & Manitowoc, WI, US
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 5:10 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 6:12 PM
Tacoma, WA, U.S.
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 5:23 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 6:29 PM
Brisbane, Australia
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 6:11 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 7:03 PM
Manila & Cebu, Philippines
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 5:44 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 6:34 PM
Olympia, WA, U.S.
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 5:25 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 6:31 PM
Singapore, Singapore
Fri. Feb 20 2015 – Candles at 7:03 PM
Sat. Feb 21 2015 – Habdalah 7:52 PM
For other places see: http://chabad.org/calendar/candlelighting.asp
Roll of Honor:
His Eminence Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David and beloved wife HH Giberet Batsheva bat Sarah
His Eminence Rabbi Dr. Eliyahu ben Abraham and beloved wife HH Giberet Dr. Elisheba bat Sarah
His Honor Paqid Adon David ben Abraham
His Honor Paqid Adon Ezra ben Abraham and beloved wife HH Giberet Karmela bat Sarah,
His Honor Paqid Adon Yoel ben Abraham and beloved wife HH Giberet Rivka bat Dorit
His Honor Paqid Adon Tsuriel ben Abraham and beloved wife HH Giberet Gibora bat Sarah
Her Excellency Giberet Sarai bat Sarah & beloved family
His Excellency Adon Barth Lindemann & beloved family
His Excellency Adon John Batchelor & beloved wife
Her Excellency Giberet Laurie Taylor
Her Excellency Prof. Dr. Conny Williams & beloved family
Her Excellency Giberet Gloria Sutton & beloved family
His Excellency Adon Gabriel ben Abraham and beloved wife HE Giberet Elisheba bat Sarah
Page 1 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
His Excellency Adon Yehoshua ben Abraham and beloved wife HE Giberet Rut bat Sarah
For their regular and sacrificial giving, providing the best oil for the lamps, we pray that G-d’s richest
blessings be upon their lives and those of their loved ones, together with all Yisrael and her Torah Scholars,
amen ve amen!
Also a great thank you and great blessings be upon all who send comments to the list about the contents and
commentary of the weekly Torah Seder and allied topics.
If you want to subscribe to our list and ensure that you never lose any of our commentaries, or would like
your friends also to receive this commentary, please do send me an E-Mail to [email protected] with
your E-Mail or the E-Mail addresses of your friends. Toda Rabba!
Shabbat “Rab-Lakhem” – “Much to you”
Shabbat
Torah Reading:
Weekday Torah Reading:
Reader 1 – D’barim 2:2-4
Reader 2 – D’barim 2:5-8
Reader 3 – D’barim 2:9-13
Reader 4 – D’barim 2:14-16
Reader 5 – D’barim 2:17-19
Reader 6 – D’barim 2:20-23
Reader 1 – D’barim 2:31-33
Reader 2 – D’barim 2:34-37
Reader 3 – D’barim 2:31-37
‫ ָלכֶם‬-‫ַרב‬
“Rab-Lakhem”
“Much to you”
“Mucho habeis”
D’barim (Deut.) 2:2 – 2:30
Psalm: 108:1-14
Ashlamatah:
Obadiah 1:21 + Micah 3:9-4:5
N.C.: Mk 14:10-11; Lk 22:3-6;
Romans 8:31-39
Reader 7 – D’barim 2:24-30
Maftir – D’barim 2:28-30
- Obadiah 1:21 +
Micah 3:9-4:5
Reader 1 – D’barim 2:31-33
Reader 2 – D’barim 2:34-37
Reader 3 – D’barim 2:31-37
Blessings Before Torah Study
Blessed are You, Ha-Shem our G-d, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us through Your
commandments, and commanded us to actively study Torah. Amen!
Please Ha-Shem, our G-d, sweeten the words of Your Torah in our mouths and in the mouths of all Your
people Israel. May we and our offspring, and our offspring's offspring, and all the offspring of Your people,
the House of Israel, may we all, together, know Your Name and study Your Torah for the sake of fulfilling
Your delight. Blessed are You, Ha-Shem, Who teaches Torah to His people Israel. Amen!
Blessed are You, Ha-Shem our G-d, King of the universe, Who chose us from all the nations, and gave us the
Torah. Blessed are You, Ha-Shem, Giver of the Torah. Amen!
Ha-Shem spoke to Moses, explaining a Commandment. "Speak to Aaron and his sons, and teach them the
following Commandment: This is how you should bless the Children of Israel. Say to the Children of Israel:
May Ha-Shem bless you and keep watch over you; - Amen!
May Ha-Shem make His Presence enlighten you, and may He be kind to you; - Amen!
May Ha-Shem bestow favor on you, and grant you peace. – Amen!
Page 2 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
This way, the priests will link My Name with the Israelites, and I will bless them."
These are the Laws for which the Torah did not mandate specific amounts: How much growing produce must
be left in the corner of the field for the poor; how much of the first fruits must be offered at the Holy Temple;
how much one must bring as an offering when one visits the Holy Temple three times a year; how much one
must do when performing acts of kindness; and there is no maximum amount of Torah that a person must
study.
These are the Laws whose benefits a person can often enjoy even in this world, even though the primary
reward is in the Next World: They are: Honoring one's father and mother; doing acts of kindness; early
attendance at the place of Torah study -- morning and night; showing hospitality to guests; visiting the sick;
providing for the financial needs of a bride; escorting the dead; being very engrossed in prayer; bringing
peace between two people, and between husband and wife; but the study of Torah is as great as all of them
together. Amen!
Contents of the Torah Seder
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Round Mount Seir – Deuteronomy 2:2-8a
On the Border of Moab – Deuteronomy 2:8b-12
The Crossing of Zered – Deuteronomy 2:13-15
Ammonites and Amorites – Deuteronomy 2:16-25
Victory over Sihon – Deuteronomy 2:26-30
Reading Assignment:
The Torah Anthology: Yalkut Me’Am Lo’Ez - Vol 15: Deuteronomy – I – Admonition
By: Rabbi Yitzchaq Behar Arguiti
Published by: Moznaim Publishing Corp. (New York, 1984)
Vol. 15 – “Deuteronomy – I – Admonition,” pp. 158-201.
Rashi & Targum Pseudo Jonathan
for: D’barim (Deuteronomy) 2:2 – 2:30
Rashi
2. And the Lord spoke to me, saying,
3. You have circled this mountain long enough; turn
northward.
4. And command the people saying, You are about to
pass through the boundary of your kinsmen, the children
of Esau, who dwell in Seir, and they will be afraid of
you. Be very careful.
5. You shall not provoke them, for I will not give you
any of their land not so much as a foot step, because I
have given Mount Seir to Esau for an inheritance.
6. You shall buy food from them with money, that you
Targum Pseudo Jonathan
2. And the LORD spoke to me, saying:
3. It is enough for you to have dwelt about this
mountain: turn you to the north,
4. and command the people, saying, You are to pass by
the border of your brethren, the children of Esau, who
dwell in Gebala, and they will be afraid of you; be very
heedful therefore;
5. provoke them not; for of their land I have not given
you as much as the sole of the foot; for I have given
Mount Gebal an inheritance unto Esau on account of the
honour which he did unto his father.
6. You will buy fresh provision of them for silver, that
Page 3 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Rashi
may eat, and also water you shall buy from them with
money, that you may drink.
7. For the Lord, your God, has blessed you in all the
work of your hand; He knows of your walking through
this great desert; these forty years that the Lord your
God has been with you, you have lacked nothing.
8. And we departed from our kinsmen, the children of
Esau, who dwelt in Seir, by way of the plain from Elath
and from Etzion Geber, and we turned and passed
through the way of the desert of Moab.
9. And the Lord said to me, Do not distress the
Moabites, and do not provoke them to war, for I will not
give you any of their land [as] an inheritance, because I
have given Ar to the children of Lot [as]an inheritance.
10. The Emim dwelt there formerly, a great and
numerous people, and tall [in stature], as the Anakim;
11. They also are considered Rephaim, as the Anakim;
but the Moabites call them Emim.
12. And the Horites formerly dwelt in Seir, and the
children of Esau were driving them out, and they
exterminated them from before them and dwelt in their
stead, just as the Israelites did to the land of their
inheritance, which the Lord gave them.
13. Now get up and cross the brook of Zered. So we
crossed the brook of Zered.
14. And the days when we went from Kadesh Barnea,
until we crossed the brook of Zered, numbered thirty
eight years, until all the generation of the men of war
expired from the midst of the camp, just as the Lord
swore to them.
15. Also the hand of the Lord was upon them, to destroy
them from the midst of the camp, until they were
consumed.
16. So it was, when all the men of war finished dying
from among the people,
17. that the Lord spoke to me saying,
18. Today you are crossing the boundary of Moab at Ar.
19. And when you approach opposite the children of
Ammon, neither distress them, nor provoke them, for I
will not give you of the land of the children of Ammon
as an inheritance, because I have given it to the children
of Lot as an inheritance.
20. It too is considered a land of Rephaim; Rephaim
dwelt therein formerly, and the Ammonites call them
Zamzummim.
21. A great, numerous and tall people as the Anakim,
Targum Pseudo Jonathan
you may eat, and water will you buy with silver, to
drink.
7. Be careful that you vex them not : for the LORD your
God has blessed you in all the works of your hands, He
hath supplied your wants in your journeying in the great
wilderness; these forty years has the Word of the LORD
your God been your helper; you have not wanted
anything.
8. So we passed by our brethren the sons of Esau, who
dwell in Gebala, from Elath and the fortress of
Tarnegola and turned and went by the way of the
wilderness of Moab
9. And the LORD spoke to me, saying: You will not
aggrieve the Moabaee, nor make war against them; for I
have not given you their land to inherit, because I have
given Lachaiath for a possession to the children of Lot.
10. The Emthanaia dwelt in it of old, a people great and
many, and mighty as the giants.
11. The giants who dwelt in the plain of Geyonbere
were also reputed as the giants who perished in the
Flood; but the Moabites called them Emethanee.
12. And in Gebala dwelt the Genosaia in old times, and
the Bene Esau drove them out and destroyed them, and
dwelt in their place; as did Israel in the land of their
inheritance, which the LORD gave to them.
13. Now arise, and pass over the stream of Tarvaja. And
we crossed the stream of Tarvaja.
14. And the days in which (from the time) we came
from Rekem Giah till we crossed the stream of Tarvaja,
were thirty and eight years, until all the generation of the
men of war were wasted out from the camp, as the
LORD had sworn to them.
15. But a plague also from the LORD had scourged
them to consume them from the host, until they were
brought to an end.
16. And when all the men of war, the makers of the high
places, were consumed by dying out of the host,
17. the LORD spoke with me, saying:
18. You are this day to pass the border of Moab towards
Lechaiath.
19. But coming near over against the children of
Ammon, you are not to vex, nor provoke them to war;
for I have not given you the land of the Bene Ammon
for a possession: I have given it an inheritance to the
children of Lot, for the sake of Abraham's
righteousness/generosity.
20. That also was accounted a land of giants; in old time
the giants dwelt in it, and the Ammonites called them
Zimthanee,
21. a people great and mighty as giants: but the Word of
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BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Rashi
but the Lord exterminated them before them, and they
drove them out and dwelt in their stead.
22. As He did to the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir,
when He exterminated the Horites from before them;
and they drove them out and dwelt in their stead even to
this day.
23. But the Avim, who dwell in open cities, up till
Gazathe Caphtorites, who came forth of Caphtor,
exterminated them, and dwelt in their stead.
24. Get up, journey, and cross the river Arnon. Behold, I
have delivered into your hand Sihon the Amorite, king
of Heshbon, and his land: Begin to possess it, and
provoke him to war.
25. Today I will begin to put the dread of you and the
fear of you upon the nations that are under the entire
heaven, who will hear reports of you and shake and be
in trepidation because of you.
26. So I sent messengers from the desert of Kedemoth to
Sihon, king of Heshbon, with words of peace, saying,
27. Allow me to pass through your land: I will go along
by the highway, I will turn neither to the right nor to the
left.
28. You shall sell me food for money, that I may eat;
and give to me water for money, that I may drink; I will
only pass through by my feet.
29. Just as the children of Esau who dwell in Seir, and
the Moabites who dwell in Ar, did for me; until I cross
the Jordan to the land which the Lord our God is giving
us.
30. But Sihon, king of Heshbon, did not wish to let us
pass by him, for the Lord your God caused his spirit to
be hardened and his heart to be obstinate, in order that
He would give him into your hand, as this day.
Targum Pseudo Jonathan
the LORD destroyed them, and drove them out before
them, and they dwelt in their place;
22. {as He did for the Bene Esau who dwell in Seir: for
He destroyed the Horaee before them, and drove them
out, and they dwell in their place} to this day.
23. And the rest of the escaped of the Kenaanah which
dwelt in the cities of Dephia to Gaza, the Kapotkaee
who came out of Kapotkaia destroyed them, and dwelt
in their place.
24. Arise, take your journey, and pass over the river
Arnona; behold, I have delivered into your hands Sihon
the king of Heshbon and the Amoraah, and his land:
begin to drive them out, and to provoke him to wage
war.
25. Today I will begin to put your terror and fear upon
the faces of all the peoples which are under the whole
heavens who will hear the report of your virtue, that the
sun and moon have stood still, and have ceased from
speaking (their) song for the space of a day and a half,
standing still in their habitation until you have done
battle with Sihon; and they will shiver and tremble
before you.
26. And I sent messengers from Nehardea, which is by
the wilderness of Kedemoth, to Sihon king of the
Amorites, with words of peace, saying,
27. I would pass through your land; by the way which is
the beaten road will I go; I will not turn aside to do you
harm on the right hand or the left.
28. I will buy fresh provision with silver, to eat, and you
will give me water for silver, to drink; I will only pass
through:
29. as the Bene Esau, who dwell in Gebal, and the
Moabaee, who dwell in Lechaiath have done to me, until
the time that I pass over the Jordan into the land which
the LORD our God gives us.
30. But Sihon the king of Heshbon was not willing to
allow us to pass through his borders; for the LORD our
God had hardened the form of his spirit, and made his
heart obstinate, to deliver him into your hand as at this
day.
Welcome to the World of P’shat Exegesis
In order to understand the finished work of the P’shat mode of interpretation of the Torah, one needs to take into
account that the P’shat is intended to produce a catechetical output, whereby a question/s is/are raised and an
answer/a is/are given using the seven Hermeneutic Laws of R. Hillel and as well as the laws of Hebrew Grammar
and Hebrew expression.
Page 5 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
The Seven Hermeneutic Laws of R. Hillel are as follows
[cf. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=472&letter=R]:
1. Ḳal va-ḥomer: "Argumentum a minori ad majus" or "a majori ad minus"; corresponding to the scholastic proof
a fortiori.
2. Gezerah shavah: Argument from analogy. Biblical passages containing synonyms or homonyms are subject,
however much they differ in other respects, to identical definitions and applications.
3. Binyan ab mi-katub eḥad: Application of a provision found in one passage only to passages which are related
to the first in content but do not contain the provision in question.
4. Binyan ab mi-shene ketubim: The same as the preceding, except that the provision is generalized from two
Biblical passages.
5. Kelal u-Peraṭ and Peraṭ u-kelal: Definition of the general by the particular, and of the particular by the general.
6. Ka-yoẓe bo mi-maḳom aḥer: Similarity in content to another Scriptural passage.
7. Dabar ha-lamed me-'inyano: Interpretation deduced from the context.
Rashi’s Commentary for: D’barim (Deuteronomy) 2:2-30
3 turn northward Turn along the eastern side [of Moab], from the south to the north, facing northerward.
Consequently, they were traveling in an easterly direction, and this is what is meant by “And they came from the
sun rise [i.e., east side] to the land of Moab” (Jud. 11:18).
4 Be very careful And what is this "being careful"? “You shall not provoke them.”
5 not so much as a foot step meaning, even only for the sole of the foot to tread a single step, I do not permit you
to enter their land without permission. An Aggadic interpretation is: [I will not give you of their land] until the day
arrives when the foot will tread upon the Mount of Olives [the Messianic era], as it said: “And His [God’s] feet will
[figuratively] stand [on that day upon the Mount of Olives]” (Zech. 14:4).
[I have given Mount Seir] to Esau for an inheritance from Abraham. I gave ten nations to Abraham, seven of
them for you [the seven of Canaan], and the Kenites, the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites (Gen. 16:18-21), who are
Ammon, Moab, and Seir. One of them is for Esau, and the other two are for the children of Lot (Gen. Rabbah 44).
As a reward [for Lot] for going with him [Abraham] to Egypt and for keeping silent when Abraham said, regarding
his wife, “She is my sister,” He treated him [Lot] as his [Abraham’s] son [to inherit part of the land promised to
Abraham] (Gen. Rabbah 44).
6 you shall buy Heb. ‫ ִּתכְ רּו‬. This is an expression of purchase. Similar is (Gen. 50:5),"which I have purchased
(‫יתי‬
ִּ ‫ )כ ִָּּר‬for myself." In the coastal cities, for “selling” (‫)מכִּ ָּירה‬
ְ , they use the word “ ‫( ”כִּ ָּירה‬Rosh Hashanah 26a).
7 For the Lord, your God, has blessed you Therefore you should not be ungrateful for His goodness [to you] by
acting as though you were poor. Rather, show yourselves as rich people.
8 and we turned and passed towards the north; we turned to proceed on the eastern side.
9 and do not provoke them to war God forbade Israel only to wage war against Moab. However, Israel did
frighten them, appearing before them, armed for battle. Therefore, it is written, “And Moab was very frightened of
the people” (Num. 22:3) because Israel plundered and looted them. Regarding the children of Ammon, however, it
says (verse 19),"Do not provoke them"—with any kind of provocation, as a reward for the modesty shown by their
ancestress [Lot’s younger daughter], who did not publicize her father’s conduct, as did his elder daughter, who
named her son Moab [ ‫מֹואָּ ב‬like ‫מֵ אָּ ב‬, from the father] (Baba Kamma 38b).
Ar The name of the province.
Page 6 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
10 The Emim dwelt there formerly- You might think that this is the land of Rephaim which I gave [promised] to
Abraham (Gen. 15:20), because the Emim, who are Rephaim, dwelt there before, but this is not that one, for those
Rephaim I drove out and made the children of Lot settle there in their stead.
11 They... are considered Rephaim... These Emim were considered Rephaim, just as the Anakim, who were
called Rephaim, because whoever beheld them—his hands became weak (‫)מ ְת ַרּפּות‬
ִּ (Gen. Rabbah 26).
Emim so called, because their fear (‫ )אֵ ימָּ ה‬was cast over mankind. And similarly (verse 12),"The Horites dwelt in
Seir" and [just as I gave the Rephaim over to the children of Lot,] I gave them [the Horites] over to the children of
Esau.
12 were driving them out Heb. ‫[יִּ ָּירׁשּום‬This is expressed in] the present tense, as if to say, I gave them power to go
on constantly driving them out.
15 [Also the hand of the Lord] was against them to quickly destroy them within a period of forty years, so that
they would not cause their children to tarry any longer in the desert.
16 So it was, when [all the men of war] finished...
17 that the Lord spoke to me But since the spies were sent until now, the word ‫[ ַו ְידַ בֵ ר‬denoting God’s speaking to
Moses with endearment] is not mentioned in [this] section, only ‫[וַיּֽ אמֶ ר‬denoting a less endearing form of
communication], to teach us that during those entire thirty-eight years during which time the Israelites were under
ban by God, the Divine speech was not directed towards him in an expression of affection, face to face, and with
peace of mind—to teach us that the Divine Presence rests upon the prophets only for Israel’s sake (Sifrei, Lev. 6).
the men of war [i.e.,] men from twenty years of age, who go forth to war.
18-19 Today you are crossing the boundary of Moab... And when you approach opposite the children of
Ammon from here [we deduce] that the land of Ammon was towards the north.
20 It too is considered a land of Rephaim It too is considered a land of Rephaim because the Rephaim dwelt there
formerly, but this is not the one I gave to Abraham.
23 But the Avim who dwell in open cities The Avim are of the Philistine people, for they are listed together with
them in the Book of Joshua (13:3), as it says, “The five Philistine lords.” The Gazites, the Ashdodites, the
Ashkelonites, the Gittites, the Ekronites, and the Avim." But because of the oath which Abraham had sworn to
Abimelech, (Gen. 21: 23-24), the Israelites were unable to take their land away from them; so I brought the
Caphtorites against them, and they destroyed them and dwelt in their stead. Now, you are permitted to take it [the
land of the Avim] from their [the Caphtorites’] possession (Chullin 60b).
25 under the entire heaven This [statement that nations under the whole heaven will fear the Israelites] teaches
that the sun stood still for Moses on the day of the battle with Og, [Other editions: Sihon,] and the matter became
[consequently] known under the entire heaven [that is, to the whole world] (Avodah Zarah 25a).
26 [And I sent messengers] from the desert of Kedemoth Even though the Omnipresent had not commanded me
to call to Sihon in peace, I learned to do so from the incident at the desert of Sinai, i.e., relating to the Torah which
preceded (‫ )קָּ ְדמָּ ה‬the world. When the Holy One, blessed be He, was about to give the Torah to Israel, He took it to
Esau and Ishmael. Although it was clear to Him that they would not accept it, nevertheless, He began with them in
peace. So too, I first called to Sihon with words of peace. Another explanation ‫ ִּמ ִּמ ְדבַ ר קְ דֵ מֹות‬Moses said to God, "I
learned this from You, Who preceeded ( ָּ‫ )קָּ דַ ְמת‬the world. You could have sent one flash of lightning to consume the
Egyptians, but instead, You sent me from the desert to Pharaoh. saying, (Exod. 5:1) ‘Let my people go’ patiently."
Page 7 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
(Midrash Tanchuma)
29 Just as the children of Esau...did for me This is not referring to permission to pass through their land, [for
Edom refused,] rather it refers to the selling of food and water.
until I cross the Jordan This refers to [Moses’ earlier request] “Allow me to pass through your land.” (verse 27)
Ketubim: Psalm 108:1-14
Rashi
1. A song, a psalm of David.
2. My heart is steadfast, O God; I shall sing and play
music, even my glory.
3. Awaken, you psaltery and harp; I shall awaken the
dawn.
4. I shall thank You among the peoples, O Lord, and I
shall play music to You among the kingdoms.
5. For Your kindness is great above the heavens, and
Your truth is until the skies.
6. Lift Yourself above the heavens, O Lord, and over all
the earth is Your glory.
7. In order that Your beloved ones be released, save
with Your right hand and answer me.
8. God spoke with His holiness, that I would rejoice,
that I would allot a portion, and that I would measure
the valley of Succoth.
9. Gilead is mine, Manasseh is mine, and Ephraim is the
strength of my head; Judah is my prince.
10. Moab is my wash basin, on Edom I shall cast my
shoe; on Philistia I shall shout.
11. Who will bring me to the fortified city? He Who led
me up to Edom.
12. Is it not You, O God, Who has forsaken us, and does
not go, O Lord, in our hosts?
13. Give us help against the adversary, for man's
salvation is futile.
14. With God we shall gather strength and He will
trample our adversaries.
Targum
1. A song and psalm composed by David.
2. My heart is firm, O God; I will praise and sing
indeed, my glory.
3. Sing praise, O harp and lyre; I will sing praise at
dawn.
4. I will give thanks in Your presence among the
peoples, O LORD, and I will sing praise to You among
the nations.
5. For Your goodness is great above the heavens, and
Your truth reaches to the sky.
6. Be exalted above the heavens, O God, and may Your
glory be on all the inhabitants of the earth.
7. So that Your beloved ones will be delivered; redeem
with Your right hand and answer me.
8. God speaks from the place of His presence; I will be
glad, I will divide spoil with the inhabitants of Shechem;
and with the inhabitants of the plain of Succoth I will
measure the border.
9. Mine is Gilead, mine is Manasseh; those of the house
of Ephraim are the strength of My head, and My scribe
is from those of the house of Judah.
10. I have trampled the Moabites like my washing-pot; I
will cast my sandal over the kingdom of Edom; I will
shout over the kingdom of the Philistines.
11. And now because I sinned, who will lead me to the
fortress of wicked Rome? Who led me to
Constantinople of Edom?
12. Behold, because we have sinned in the presence of
the LORD He has forsaken us, and His presence does
not go out with our armies.
13. Give us help from the oppressor, for vain is the
redemption of the son of man.
14. In God we shall show might, and He will trample
our oppressors.
Rashi Commentary for: Psalm 108:1-14
2 My heart is steadfast faithful with You.
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even my glory Even my glory is what I sing to You. Another explanation:
Even my glory Even according to my honor, I shall not hesitate to sing to Him, and I shall not take glory for
myself.
3 I shall awaken the dawn It is the custom of other kings that the dawn awakens them, but I awaken the
dawn, for I rise at midnight, when the psaltery and the harp awaken me, as our Rabbis said (Ber. 3b): A harp
was suspended above David’s bed. As soon as midnight arrived, the north wind would blow on it and it would play
by itself.
5 above the heavens and one verse says (above 57:11): “is up to the heavens.” Our Rabbis explained: This one
speaks of those who perform [a commandment] for its sake [i.e., for the sole purpose of obeying the Torah],
and that one deals with those who perform [the commandments] with ulterior motives.
7 and answer me for all Your people and Your beloved ones are dependent upon me.
8 God spoke with His holiness that I would reign and that the time would come that I would rejoice in His word.
that I would allot a portion I shall divide the land of my enemies to Israel, like (Gen. 48:22): “one portion (‫)שכם‬
more than your brethren.”
10 Moab is my washbasin i.e., my slaves and my servants, like a utensil that people use.
on Edom I shall cast my servitude, that their kings should put my shoes on my feet.
I shall shout I shall raise my voice to them to frighten them.
and may He cut off their remembrance from the earth [the remembrance] of Esau and his chieftains.
11 Who will bring me in the time of the Messiah, to stretch forth my hand upon Esau in his fortified cities?
He Who Who led us already upon Edom, that I smote them in the Valley of Salt, eighteen thousand.
Meditation from the Psalms
Psalms 108: 1-14
By: H.Em. Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David
The superscription of our psalm declares that David is the author. This composition is unique in that it is almost an
exact replica of sections of previous psalms. Verses 2-6 of this psalm are closely patterned after verses 8-12 of
psalm 57, and verses 7-14 of this psalm correspond almost totally to verses 7-14 of psalm 60.
Radak explains that the earlier psalms relate to David’s desperate flight from Saul and his ultimate salvation. Psalm
60 tells of David’s conquest of Aram. Here these verses take on new meaning, for they refer to the fortunes of Israel
as a whole. In the future, the Messiah, scion of David, will deliver Israel from exile and will lead the Jews in
triumphant conquest of their enemies.
At that time the refrain of Israel’s song will be, Grant us help against the oppressor; futile is the aid of man.
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Through God we shall form an army, and He will trample our oppressors.1 Several of our oppressors are named in
both our Torah portion and in our Psalm. I would like to take a look at what we can learn from our psalm as it
speaks of these oppressors.
Let’s start by looking at Moab. Moab, along with Midian, was the instigator for hiring Bilaam to curse the Bne
Israel when they came out of Mitzrayim. They also refused to provide the Bne Israel bread and water when they
came out of Mitzrayim. These were wicked people.
Moab was the son of Lot and his eldest daughter.2 Lot’s daughters committed incest with their father because they
believed that everyone else on earth was dead. In fact, the only reason they were alive was because Avraham Avinu
had prayed for them.3 The Moabites, therefore, owed a debt of gratitude to the Jewish people. This character trait of
ungratefulness is such a serious flaw that the Torah mentions it before the cursing of Balaam:
Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:3-4 An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of HaShem;
even to their tenth generation shall they not enter into the congregation of HaShem for ever: Because they
met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired
against thee Balaam the son of Beor of Pethor of Mesopotamia, to curse thee.
By the time the Bne Israel came out of Mitzrayim,4 ungratefulness and immorality had become part and parcel of
the national character of Moab.5 Moabites, therefore, are a picture of those who rebel against HaShem. They are
ungrateful for what He has given them and turn instead to false gods.
It is therefore quite remarkable to encounter a Moabitess, Ruth, who was the epitome of kindness. Ruth was a
princess, the daughter of Eglon, King of Moab, according to our Sages.6 Moab typifies an immoral people who
have left the ways of HaShem and lack kindness. Because of their apostasy, the Sages decreed that it was forbidden
for an Israelite to marry a Moabite man.7 Ruth, though a Moabitess, demonstrated kindness par excellence! So great
was this kindness that she merited becoming an ancestor of King David and an ancestor of the Kingly line.
Therefore, Moab = ungratefulness. Because of this quality, our psalm calls Moab G-d’s wash pot. But why should
they be called a ‘washpot’? Our Sages teach that this term is used to embarrass the Moabites. There is a famous
passage in II Kings which speaks of the embarrassment of Naaman who was told to wash in the Jordan to be
cleansed of his leprosy. Naaman was incensed that he should go to such a pitiful stream when there were much
more illustrious rivers in his homeland.8 Radak puts it this way: “I will treat Moab with contempt, like the putrid
water of the chamber pot which is cast away in disgust”.
There is also a reference to Mashiach in the passage concerning Bilaam, who prophesies, for Balak king of Moab,
about the two anointed kings. The first anointed king, David, who saved Israel from her oppressors, and the final
anointed king who will arise from among his descendants and save Israel at the End of Days. The following phrases
are from that passage:9
“I see it, but not now” - This refers to David; “I perceive it, but not in the near future” - This refers to King
Mashiach.
1
verses 13-14. - These opening remarks are excerpted, and edited, from: The ArtScroll Tanach Series, Tehillim, A new translation with a
commentary anthologized from Talmudic, Midrashic, and rabbinic sources. Commentary by Rabbi Avrohom Chaim Feuer, Translation by
Rabbi Avrohom Chaim Feuer in collaboration with Rabbi Nosson Scherman.
2 Beresheet (Genesis) 19:30-38.
3 Beresheet (Genesis) chapter 18.
4 Egypt
5 Bamidbar (Numbers) 25:1-9.
6 Nazir 23b
7 Yevamoth 76b
8 Syria
9 Bamidbar (Numbers) 24:17-18
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“A star shall go forth from Yaakov” - This refers to David; “and a staff shall arise in Israel” - This refers to
King Mashiach.
“He shall crush all of Moab’s princes” - This refers to David, (as it is written,10 “He smote Moab and
measured them with a line”); “he shall break down all of Seth’s descendants” - This refers to King Mashiach,
(about whom it is written,11 “He will rule from sea to sea”).
“Edom will be demolished” - This refers to David, (as it is written,12 “Edom became the servants of David”);
“his enemy, Seir, will be destroyed” - This refers to Mashiach, (as it is written,13 “Saviors will ascend Mount
Zion [to judge the mountain of Esau....]”).
We will look at Edom a bit later. First lets look more closely at Naaman and Chazal’s look at “Moab is my
washpot”. Naaman is understood as Moab in the expression “Moab is my washpot”,14 which the Rabbis regard as
an allusion to Naaman’s bathing in the Jordan; the appellation “Moab” is a play on the word “abi” (= “my father”),
by which Naaman was addressed by his servants in II Melachim (Kings) 5:13.15 Naaman was a “ger toshab”, that is,
he was not a perfect proselyte, having accepted only some of the commandments.16
According to the Rabbis, Naaman was the archer who drew his bow at a venture and mortally wounded Ahab, King
of Israel.17 This event is alluded to in the words “because by him the Lord had given deliverance unto Syria”, 18 and
therefore the Syrian king, Naaman’s master, was Benhadad.19 Naaman is represented as vain and haughty, on
account of which he was stricken with leprosy.20 Tanchuma, Tazria,21 however, says that Naaman was stricken with
leprosy for taking an Israelite maiden and making her his wife’s servant.22 The Mechilta,23 however, places
Naaman’s conversion above Jethro’s.
The Gemara and the Midrash24 suggest that “Moab is my Washpot” alludes to Gehazi who took payment from
Naaman for Elisha’s advice to wash seven times in the Jordan river.25
Sanhedrin 104b The Doreshe Reshumoth26 maintained: All of them will enter the world to come, as it is
written, Gilead is mine, Manasseh is mine;27 Ephraim also is the strength of mine head; Judah is my
lawgiver,’ Moab is my washpot; over Edom will I cast out my shoe: Philistia, triumph thou because of me.28
[Thus:] ‘Gilead is mine’ this refers to Ahab, who fell at Ramoth-gilead; ‘Manasseh’ is literally meant;29
‘Ephraim also is the strength of mine head’ — this alludes to Jeroboam, a descendant of Ephraim; ‘Judah is
my lawgiver’ — this refers to Ahitophel, who is descended from Judah; ‘Moab is my washpot,’ to Gehazi,
10
II Shmuel (Samuel) 8:2
Zechariah 9:10
12 Cf. II Shmuel (Samuel) 8:6 and 8:14
13 Ovadiah 1:21
14 Tehillim (Psalms) 108:10
15 Numbers Rabbah 14:4
16 Giṭtim 57b; Deuteronomy Rabbah 2.
17
I Melachim (Kings) 22:34.
18 II Melachim (Kings) v. 1
19 Midrash Shocher Ṭob to. Ps. lx.; Arama, “‘Aḳedat Yiẓḥaḳ,” ch. lxi.
20 Numbers Rabbah 7:5; comp. Arama, l.c
21 End
22 Compare II Melachim (Kings) v. 2
23 Yitro, Amalek, 1
24 Midrash Rabbah - Numbers XIV:1 has virtually the same remarks as the Gemara.
25 II Melachim (Kings) 5:20-24.
26 ‫רשומות דורש‬lit., ‘interpreters of signs,’ i.e., those who interpret the law symbolically, for the sake of edification and instruction, a school of
exegetes belonging to a period anterior to that of Hillel and Shammai and of Palestinian origin. For a full discussion of the term, v.
Lauterbach, J.Q.R. (N.S.) I, pp. 291ff. and 503ff.
27 I.e., it is for me to bear their iniquities that they may enter into the coming world.
28 Tehillim (Psalms) 60:9f.
29 Viz., the son of Hezekiah.
11
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who was smitten on account of matters connected with bathing; ‘over Edom will I cast out my shoe’ 30 — to
Doeg the Edomite; ‘Philistia, triumph thou because of me,’ The ministering Angels exclaimed before the
Holy One, blessed be He, ‘Sovereign of the Universe! If David comes, who slew the Philistine and gave
possession of Gath to thy children. [and complains at Thy giving a share in the world to come to Doeg and
Ahitophel], what wilt thou do with him?’ He replied, ‘It is My duty to make them friends with each other’.31
The Zohar brings another interesting perspective on Moab.
Zohar Balak 189 Come and see that everything stemmed from Midian; the thrust of their counsel was about
Moses, and with the advice of Midian they hired Balaam. When they realized that Balaam was incapable,
they followed another wicked idea, and they freely offered their women and daughters even more than Moab.
About the women of Midian, it is written: “Behold, these caused the children of Israel.” (Num.
31:16) Everything stemmed from Midian. They took counsel with their chief that he should let loose his
daughter, since they were plotting to ensnare Moses in their net. They adorned her with how many spells, so
she should successfully catch the heads.
Everything originated in Midian in several ways. Therefore, Midian was punished and the Holy One, blessed
be He, said to Moses, “Execute the vengeance of the children of Israel on the Midianites”. (Num. 31:2) For
you, it is appropriate and becoming. As for Moab, I leave them alone until the two jewels will come out from
among them. Here’s David son of Yishai who will take revenge on Moab, and will rinse the loaded pot of
filth from Pe’or. This is what it says, “Moab is my washpot”32 assuredly. As long as these two jewels33 did
not come out of there, they were not punished. As soon as they emerged, David came and washed clean the
pot from their filth, and all received their punishment, Midian during the time of Moses and Moab during the
time of David.
Thus we see that until Ruth the Moabitess and Naamah the Ammonitess came and joined the House of Israel,
HaShem did not allow the Bne Israel to mess with Moab and Ammon. However, after Ruth came and joined the
House of Israel, David surely messed with them big time.
David had good cause to despise Moab, as the Midrash34 explains: When Saul’s pursuit forced David to flee from
the land of Israel, he placed his father and mother under the protection of the king of Moab. 35 David had more
confidence in the Moabites than he had in Saul, because his grandmother was Ruth the Moabite; but the king of
Moab killed the entire family.36
Therefore, Moab is likened to a cooking pot, for just as a pot dissolves meat, so was the flesh of David’s family
devoured in Moab. Only one of David’s brothers escaped to Nachash, king of Ammon, who refused to heed the
king of Moab’s demands that the refugee be returned. Later David punished Moab for their treachery, as we read:
II Shmuel (Samuel) 8:2 And he smote Moab, and measured them with the line, making them lie down on the
‫( נעלי‬E.V. ‘my shoe’) is connected with root meaning ‘to lock’ and the phrase is taken to denote, ‘I will lock him up in Paradise.’
‫ התרועעי‬hithro’a’i (E.V. ‘triumph thou’) is thus derived from ‫רע‬and translated ‘make thyself a friend’. It may be observed that it is not
taught here that they actually have a portion in the world to come as a right, but that they will nevertheless enter therein, God bearing their
iniquities to make this possible (v. n. 1). This is in accordance with the general attitude of Judaism that punishment is not everlasting. Cf. M.
Joseph. Judaism as Creed and Life, pp. 146-147.
32 Tehillim (Psalms) 108:10
33 The Talmud calls these two ‘jewels’ are called ‘good doves’.
34 Bamidbar Rabbah 14:1
35 1Shmuel (Samuel) 22:3-4
36 Alshich perceives in the phrase Moab is my washbasin an allusion to the taint of Moabite ancestry on David’s lineage. David spent his life
washing his soul and cleansing it from any trace of gentile association. The Talmud, in Yoma 22b, states that no leader should be appointed
to a position of authority over the community unless he has a basketful of ‘creeping reptiles’ tied to his back, meaning that his family tree
should have some lowly ancestry. Then, if he grows excessively proud, people can taunt him, ‘Turn around and see from whence you came.’
The proof of this is that since Saul’s pedigree was perfect, he disregarded admonition and fell; but David’s Moabite ancestry always haunted
him and caused him to be more humble and cautious in his affairs (see Rashi, Yoma 22b).
30
31
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ground, and he measured out two lines [two-thirds of the populace] to be put to death and one full line [onethird] to keep alive.
Sforno adds that Moab was near Eretz Israel. Because it was under David’s constant surveillance, he could
humiliate Moab without fearing a revolt.
Edom
Now, lets look at Edom which is also the subject of our Torah portion and our Psalm. Our psalm introduces Edom
with the following statement:
Tehillim (Psalms) 108:10 Moab is my washpot; upon Edom do I cast my shoe;37 over Philistia do I cry
aloud.
The Midrash gives us the following insight:
Midrash Rabbah - Numbers XIV:1 Upon Edom do I cast my shoe.’ What will I do? I will draw off My shoes
and tread upon them and trample them down with My heel. In the same strain it says, I have trodden the
winepress38 alone, etc. (Isa. LXIII, 3). This has been illustrated by a parable. To what may it be compared? It
may be compared to a mortal king who built four palaces in four cities. He went into one of them, and ate
and drank without drawing off his shoes. He did the same thing in the second palace and the third. When he
came to the fourth he ate and drank and did draw off his shoes, saying to his attendants: ‘Go and bring me
all the prominent men in this city and let them set food before me.’ They asked him: ‘How is it that when you
entered the previous one you ate and drank without drawing off your shoes, while here you drew off your
shoes when you ate and drank?’ He said to them: ‘When I entered the first palace my mind was not at ease;
and the same was the case with the second and the third. Every moment I thought: When shall I see the hour
in which I can enter into the last one? Now that I have entered, my mind has immediately been put at ease.’
It was the same with the Holy One, blessed be He. He made war against Pharaoh, Amalek, Sisera,
Sennacherib, Nebuchadnezzar, Haman, and the kings of the Greeks,39 but His mind will not be calmed until
He will Himself execute vengeance upon Edom. This explains, ‘Upon Edom will I cast my shoe; Philistia
(pelesheth) cry aloud (hithro’a’i) because of me!’ which means: I will cast down the foundations of Edom
and will encompass your redemption.40
Obviously the Midrash sees a very bad end for Edom. Before we get into looking at Edom, lets first explore the
Gemara’s statement that we looked at above.
The Gemara41 teaches us that our psalm’s statement alludes to Doeg the Edomite. So, who is Doeg the Edomite?
Doeg was a key figure in King Saul’s court at the end of his reign, as the future King David entered the national
spotlight. Doeg was there when David killed Goliath, and he was central to King Saul’s pursuit of David.
The main description of Doeg in Tanach is in I Shmuel (Samuel) 21-22, during the pursuit of David. On the advice
of King Saul’s son, Yehonatan, David had fled. He headed to Nob, which is a city populated by Priests. On arriving
in Nob, David encountered Achimelech and asked for support. He told Achimelech that he was on a secret mission
from King Saul, and Achimelech gave David the showbread from the Mishkan, which was the portion of the
Priests. Achimelech also gave David the sword of Goliath.
37
The Zohar (Parashat Balak) explains that this is said for a faraway time, which implies the End of Days.
Metaphorical reference to Edom; v. Isa. LXIII, 1.
39 This probably refers to Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria (so called because of his attempted Hellenization of the Jews).
40 ‫אתרועעי‬is thus probably connected with ‫‘רעע‬to be favorably inclined’.
41 Sanhedrin 104b
38
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Doeg was in the town at this time, and he reported to King Saul that the town of Nob had been complicit in David’s
escape. King Saul ordered his men, and specifically Doeg, to wipe out the town; they did so.
Doeg’s “surname” is intriguing; was he an Edomite? His position, which we’ll describe momentarily, would
indicate that he was Jewish. Radak42 suggests that Doeg was simply from the land of Edom. We have several
similarly named people in Tanach. Uriah haChiti was not a Hittite; he came from there. Iti haGitti was from Gat,
but he was not a Philistine.
When Doeg is introduced, in I Shmuel (Samuel) 21, he is identified as “Abir haRoim”, the most powerful of the
shepherds. The juxtaposition of this title with his position at King Saul’s ear is odd, and the commentators look to
the broader meaning of “shepherd” within Tanach. Classically, our patriarchs were identified as shepherds. This
leads Rashi to comment on “Abir haRoim” that Doeg was the Av Beit Din, the head of the High Court.43
In Tehillim 3:2, King David turns to G-d and says, “Great ones stand against me”. This may be understood as a
reference to great numbers, or to great figures. Rashi comments that “Great” means foes who are great in Torah,
great in wisdom, great in wealth, and great in physical strength, and Rashi numbers Doeg in that list of enemies.
The Midrash44 considers Doeg a formidable character in the politics of the time. King Saul tells Shmuel that he had
not wiped out Amalek, “because I feared the nation”. The Midrash indicates that Doeg was the one who King Saul
feared.
Doeg was a leading Torah sage. The Gemara45 indicates that Doeg, along with Achitophel, was able to come up
with 300 questions regarding a complicated, intricate section of law. The Gemara also indicates46 that Doeg may
have been somewhat frustrated, as the law did not follow his conclusions.
Doeg seems to have come up against David on a couple of occasions, aside from the Nob Massacre.
The first was after David defeated Goliath. King Saul turned to his entourage, and asked, “Who is this boy?” We
know, from the context, that King Saul already knew David. He was actually asking whether David came from a
line which could produce royalty.47 Doeg responded, “Ask whether he is even Jewish!” Doeg was referring to
David’s ancestress, Ruth the Moabitess, and the prohibition against Jews marrying Moabites. Abner, a general,
objected that the prohibition extended only to male Moabites, for reasons related to the original prohibition’s
specifics. The debate dragged out, until Abner cited Shmuel himself as saying that the prohibition was only against
males, and so Ruth was all right.
This debate did have fallout for David on a second occasion, though. King Saul had promised his daughter, Michal,
to the man who would defeat Goliath. Basing himself on Doeg’s argument,48 King Saul refused to let David marry
Michal, and instead tried to marry her to Palti ben Layish.
Doeg also tried another tack against David, complimenting him to King Saul in order to incite King Saul’s
jealousy.49
Now we know about Doeg the Edomite. He is the Ab Beit Din with a hatred for David.
Lets turn our attention to Edom proper and try to get a better idea for the Psalm and Torah portions to speak so
42
I Shmuel (Samuel) 21:8
The Midrash Tehillim 3:4 is likely Rashi’s source for this conclusion.
44 Midrash Shmuel (Samuel) 18:4
45 Chagigah 15b
46 Sanhedrin 106b
47 Yevamot 76b-77a
48 Beresheet Rabbah 32:1
49 Sanhedrin 93b
43
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negatively about Edom. The first mention of the word Edom is found in:
Beresheet (Genesis) 25:30 And Esau said to Yaaqov, Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red [pottage]; for
I [am] faint: therefore was his name called Edom.
Edom is the name which was given to Esau, the first-born son of Yitzchak, on the day he sold his birthright to
Yaaqov for a mess of pottage, the reddish color of which gives it its name: ‘Adom’.
The Torah’s first use of the word Edom, sets the word in the context of two brothers mourning the death of
Avraham Avinu. One has just returned from a day of raping and murder, the other has spent the day mourning and
preparing the traditional mourner’s meal of lentils. Both events center around the color red. Edom is shedding blood
whilst Yaaqov is cooking red lentils. This will be an important understanding as we progress in this study.
The Torah repeats the association of Edom with Esau in:
Beresheet (Genesis) 36:1 Now these [are] the generations of Esau, who [is] Edom.
Beresheet (Genesis) 36:8 Thus dwelt Esau in mount Seir: Esau [is] Edom.
Beresheet (Genesis) 36:43 Duke Magdiel, duke Iram: these [be] the dukes of Edom, according to their
habitations in the land of their possession: he [is] Esau the father of the Edomites.
Now we know that when Torah repeats a matter it is to emphasize the connection. Thus Torah is connecting Esau
to Edom.
This encounter shows that Esau is more concerned for this world than for the next world:
Beresheet (Genesis) 25:32 Esau cried out, “Why do I need the birthright?”
Midrash HaGadol 25:32 A Heavenly Voice echoed, “Why do you need the blessing?”
Blessings made the difference between living ONLY in this world and also living in the Olam HaBa, the World to
Come:
Yitzchak avoided using HaShem’s Name in Esau’s blessing since the purpose of Esau’s blessing was to grant him
his full reward in this world so that he should be excluded from the blessings of the World to Come.50
For, that is what Edom is all about, THIS WORLD, even at the cost of eternity. Thus, by extension, Galut Edom,
the fourth and final exile of the Jewish people has been meant to endure in advance of Mashiach’s arrival, is one
that eternalizes the temporal.
Our Sages teach us that the lives of the forefathers foreshadow events in the lives of their descendants. To
understand the events of history, relative to Israel, all we need to do is study the lives of the Patriarchs.
The Ramban calls Beresheet (Genesis), Sefer Simanim, the book of signs. Beresheet is not just the story of what
happened, it also foretells what will happen!
The Rambam tells us that the Torah’s purpose in writing about the encounter between Esau and Yaaqov, in
Beresheet 32, is to tell us that Esau will never defeat Yaaqov, though he will try with all of his might.
50
Midrash Pliah
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BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Yaaqov’s life-and-death struggle with Esau is to characterize all of subsequent Jewish history. The night (exile) will
be long and the battle will be intense.
The Zohar comments on the verse
Beresheet (Genesis) 25:26 “And afterwards his brother came out and his hand was holding on to the heel of
Esav; and his name was called Yaakov”.
The Zohar51 states that Esau is compared to the Original Snake (nachash kadmoni). The force in this world that
represents the Original Snake, in the Garden of Eden, that tricked Adam and Chava into eating from the Tree of the
Knowledge of Good and Evil, the personification of that Snake in this world, is Esau. This gives us a bit of a hint
into what Edom really is.
The Zohar says that when the verse tells us that Yaaqov’s hand was holding Esau’s heel, the Torah is setting the
stage and is telling us how Yaaqov Avinu, in the future, will have to deal with Esau. He is going to have to deal
with him by attacking at the heel; he is going to have to deal with him, sometimes, deceitfully and surreptitiously.
That is the only way one can deal with that snake.
Our Sages taught the meaning of this verse:
II Shmuel (Samuel) 22:27 “With a pure one, You show Yourself pure; but with a perverse one, You deal
crookedly.”
They taught that you cannot always be up front and straight forward with a person who is a liar. Even Yaaqov, the
man of truth, has a mandate from the Torah, that the way to deal with Esau is by ‘heel,’ which is connoted in
Yaaqov’s name.
Yaaqov’s meeting with Esau represented the paradigm of how Jews must deal with the non-Jewish world.
The Sforno writes: The events which occurred to Yaaqov when he first left his father’s house foreshadow Jewish
history during the first exile, while the events which occurred to him after he returned to his father’s house
foreshadow Jewish history during the Second Temple and subsequent exile and the redemption at the end of
time”.
I have more to say about Philistia, but I am already being a bit long winded, so I’ll leave you with just a thought:
Many Rabbis teach that "Palestinians" are the same as the Philistines.
Today, 3400+ years ago, HaShem sent the plague of darknes to afflict the Egyptians. Today we still see many
people in darkness simply because they don’t want to draw near to HaShem. Both our psalm and our Torah portion
speak of various peoples. We have looked at a couple of those peoples. It is fitting, therefore, that ‘people’ be our
verbal tally.52 Our psalmist then declares:
Tehillim (Psalms) 108:3 I will praise thee, HaShem, among the people: and I will sing praises unto thee
among the nations.
Concerning this month, Chazal teach that, “at the onset of Adar, Joy (simcha) is increased”.53 When we see what
HaShem has in store for our enemies, we can surely increase our joy. This is the month which will see the downfall
of Haman a descendant of Esau. No wonder our psalm and Torah portion speak on this issue!
51
Soncino Zohar, Beresheet, Section 1, Page 166b
People - ‫עם‬, Strong’s number 05971.
53 Ta'anith 29a
52
Page 16 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
As a matter of interest, Our next psalm, Psalms chapter 109, is said by the Siddur Avodat Israel to be the mizmor
for Shabbat Zachor, which is next Shabbat. HaShem willing, we will be commenting on Psalms chapter 109 on the
first Shabbat after Shabbat Zachor.
Ashlamatah: Obad. 1:21+Mic. 3:9-4:5
Rashi
1. The vision of Obadiah; So said the Lord God
concerning Edom; We have heard tidings from the Lord,
and a messenger has been sent among the nations,
"Arise and let us rise up against them in war!"
2. Behold I have made you small among the nations;
you are very despised.
3. The wickedness of your heart enticed you, who dwell
in the clefts of the rock, whose habitation is high, who
says to himself, "Who will bring me down to the earth?"
Targum
1. The prophecy' of Obadiah. Thus says the LORD God
concerning Edom: We have heard tidings from the
LORD, and an envoy has been sent out among the
nations. rise up! Let us stand against her in battle.
2. Behold I have made you weak among the nations!
You are most despised.
3. The wickedness of your heart has led you astray; for
you are like the eagle, which dwells in the clefts of the
rock, whose abode is on high, who says in his heart:
“Who can bring me down to the ground?”
4. Though you soar as high as the eagle, and set your
dwelling among the stars, even from there I will bring
you down by My Memra says the LORD.
5. If thieves were to come to you, plunderers by night,
how would you sleep until they had stolen all they
wanted? If robbers like vintagers came to you, would
they not leave some gleanings?
6. How Esau is ransacked, how his hidden things are
uncovered!
7. All you allies have banished you beyond the frontier;
your confederates have duped and overcome you; those
who ate at your table have planted a snare under you; for
there is no understanding in you!
8. At that time, says the LORD, will I not destroy the
wise from Edom and the man of intelligence from
Esau's citadel?
9. Your warriors, O inhabitants of the south shall be
crushed, so that every man who has need will be wiped
out from Esau's citadel because of the slaughter.
10. For the violence done to your brother Jacob, shame
shall cover you and you shall be wiped out for ever.
11. On the day when you stood aloof, on the day when
Gentiles plundered his goods, and foreigners entered his
cities" and cast lots for Jerusalem, you were like one of
them.
12. How you gloated over the day of your brother, on
the day of his destruction, and how you rejoiced over
the people of Judah on the day of their destruction. How
you excelled in boasting in the time of distress.
4. If you go up high like an eagle, and if you place your
nest among the stars, from there I will bring you down,
says the Lord.
5. Did thieves come upon you, did plunderers of the
night? How were you silent? Will they not steal till they
have enough? If vintagers came upon you, would they
not leave over some gleaning grapes?
6. How Esau was searched out, how his hidden things
were revealed!
7. Until the border all your allies escorted you; your
friends enticed you, yea prevailed against you; your
food they lay as a wound under you; there is no
discernment in them.
8. Shall I not in that day-says the Lord-destroy wise men
from Edom and discernment from the mountain of
Esau?
9. And your mighty men shall be dismayed, O dwellers
of the southland, in order that every man be cut off from
the mountain of Esau by slaughter.
10. Because of the violence of your brother Jacob,
shame shall cover you, and you shall be cut off forever.
11. On that day you stood from afar, on the day
strangers captured his possessions, and foreigners came
into his cities, and on Jerusalem they cast lots; you, too,
are like one of them.
12. And you should not have looked on the day of your
brother on the day of his being delivered, and you
should not have rejoiced about the children of Judah on
the day of their destruction, and you should not have
spoken proudly on the day of distress.
13. You should not have come into the gate of My 13. How you entered the gates of My people on the day
people on the day of their misfortune; you too should of their destruction, how you too gloated over their
Page 17 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Rashi
not have looked at their affliction on the day of their
misfortune, and you should not have stretched out [your
hand] upon their possessions on the day of their
misfortune.
14. And you should not have stood by the gap to cut off
their fugitives, neither should you have delivered their
survivors on the day of distress.
15. For the day of the Lord over all the gentiles is close;
as you have done shall be done to you; your recompense
shall be returned upon your head.
16. For, as you drank on My Holy Mount, shall all the
gentiles drink constantly, and they shall drink and be
stunned, and they shall be as though they were not.
17. And on Mount Zion there shall be a remnant, and it
shall be holy, and the house of Jacob shall inherit those
who inherited them.
18. And the house of Jacob shall be fire and the house of
Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau shall become
stubble, and they shall ignite them and consume them,
and the house of Esau shall have no survivors, for
the Lord has spoken.
19. And [the inhabitants of] the southland shall inherit
the mountain of Esau, and [the inhabitants of] the plain,
the Philistines, and they shall inherit the field of
Ephraim and the field of Samaria, and Benjamin [with
the inhabitants of] Gilead.
20. And this exiled host of the children of Israel who are
[with] the Canaanites as far as Zarephath and the exile
of Jerusalem which is in Sepharad shall inherit the
cities of the southland.
21. And saviors shall ascend Mt. Zion to judge the
mountain of Esau, and the Lord shall have the
kingdom. {P}
9. Hearken now to this, you heads of the house of
Jacob and you rulers of the house of Israel, who
condemn justice and pervert all that is straight.
10. Each one builds Zion with blood and Jerusalem
with injustice.
11. Its heads judge for bribes, and its priests teach
for a price; and its prophets divine for money, and
they rely on the Lord, saying, "Is not the Lord in our
midst? No evil shall befall us."
Targum
disaster on the day of their destruction, and laid your
hands on their goods on the day of their destruction.
14. How you stood at the crossroads to wipe out their
fugitives and how betrayed their refugees in the time of
distress.
15. For the day that will come from the LORD against
all the Gentile nations is at hand. As you did, so shall it
be done to you. Your deeds will return on your own
head.
16. For as you rejoiced over the laying low of My holy
mountain, so all the peoples shall drink the cup of their
punishment unceasingly, and they shall drink and be
swallowed up and become as though they have never
been.
17. But on Mount Zion there shall be survivors and they
shall be holy. And the people of the house of Jacob shall
take possession of the goods of the goods of the Gentiles
who were dispossessing them.
18. The people of the house of Jacob shall be strong as
fire, and the people of the house of Joseph as mighty as
flame, but the people of the house of Esau shall be as
weak as straw; and they shall have dominion over them
and slaughter them, and there shall be no survivor left
of the house of Esau, for through the Memra of the
Lord it has been decided thus.
19. The inhabitants of the south shall possess the citadel
of Esau, and the inhabitants of the Shephelah the land of
the Philistines. And they shall possess the cities of
Ephraim and the cities of Samaria, and the people of the
house of Benjamin shall possess the cities of the
inhabitants of the land of Gilead.
20. Exiles of this people of the Israelites (shall possess)
what is in the land Canaan as far as Zarephath, while
the exiles of Jerusalem who are in Spain shall possess
the cities of the land of the south.
21. Liberators shall go up to Mount Zion to judge the
citadel of Esau, and the kingdom of the LORD shall
be revealed over all the inhabitants of the earth.
9. Hear this, you leaders of the house of Jacob, you
rulers of the house of Israel, who corrupt the ways of
justice and pervert all that is right,
10. who build their houses in Zion with shed blood
and Jerusalem with deceit.
11. Her leaders judge for bribes, her priests give
instruction for money and her prophets teach for
silver; yet they rely on the Memra of the LORD,
saying, “Is not the Shekinah of the LORD in our
midst? Evil will not come upon us", they say.
Page 18 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Rashi
Targum
12. Therefore, because of you, Zion shall be plowed as a 12. Therefore on account of your sins Zion shall be
field; Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the Temple ploughed as a field and Jerusalem shall become heaps of
Mount like the high places of a forest. {P}
ruins, and the Sanctuary mount shall be a thicket of the
forest.
1. And it shall be at the end of the days, that the
mountain of the Lord's house shall be firmly established
at the top of the mountains, and it shall be raised above
the hills, and peoples shall stream upon it.
2. And many nations shall go, and they shall say,
"Come, let us go up to the Lord's mount and to the
house of the God of Jacob, and let Him teach us of His
ways, and we will go in His paths," for out of Zion shall
the Torah come forth, and the word of the Lord from
Jerusalem.
3. And he shall judge between many peoples and
reprove mighty nations afar off; and they shall beat
their swords into plowshares, and their spears into
pruning hooks; nations shall not lift the sword against
nation; neither shall they learn war anymore.
4. And they shall dwell each man under his vine and
under his fig tree, and no one shall make them move, for
the mouth of the Lord of Hosts has spoken.
5. For all peoples shall go, each one in the name of his
god, but we will go in the name of the Lord, our God,
forever and ever. {P}
1. It shall come to pass in the latter days that the
mountain of the LORD's Sanctuary shall be established
as the highest of the mountains, and shall be raised up
above the hills. All the kingdoms shall turn to worship
upon it.
2. And many Gentiles shall come and say: “Come, let us
go up to the mountain of the LORD's Sanctuary and to
the house of the Shekinah of the God of Jacob, that He
may teach us ways which are right before Him, and that
we may walk in the teaching of His Law. For out of
Zion shall go forth the law, and the teaching Of6 the
word of the Lord from Jerusalem. 3.
3. He shall judge between many peoples, and shall
arbitrate for mighty kings for ever. They shall beat
their swords into ploughshares and their spears into
sickles. Nation shall not raise arms against nation, nor
shall they learn war any more.
4. But every man shall sit under the fruit of his vines
and under the fruit of his fig-trees with no one to
frighten him. For by the Memra of the LORD of Hosts
has it been decreed so.
5. Though all the peoples shall be guilty because they
worshipped idols, we, however, shall rely on the name
of the LORD our God for ever and ever.
Rashi’s Commentary on Obad. 1:21+Mic. 3:9-4:5
21 shall ascend -Princes of Israel as saviors on Mt. Zion.
to judge the mountain of Esau -to exact retribution from the mountain of Esau for what they did to Israel.
to judge Heb. ‫לִּ ְׁשּפֹט‬. joustiser in O.F.
the mountain of Esau - Jonathan renders: the great city of Esau.
and the Lord shall have the kingdom -This teaches you that His kingdom will not be complete until He exacts
retribution from Amalek.
Micah Chapter 3
12 Jerusalem shall become heaps Heb. ‫עִּ יין‬.
Micah Chapter 4
Page 19 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
1 shall stream Heb. ‫וְ ָּנהֲרּו‬. And they shall gather there together like rivers flowing into the sea.
3 And he shall judge -This judgment is an expression of reproof, derajjnement in O.F. [Isa 2:4]
4 for the mouth of the Lord of Hosts has spoken -Now where has He spoken? (Lev. 26:6) “And I will place
peace in the land, etc.” [from Mechilta to Exodus 12:25]
5 For all peoples shall go, each one in the name of his god -Shall go to destruction because they worshipped
idols. So did Jonathan render it.
Verbal Tallies
By: HEm Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David
& HH Giberet Dr. Elisheba bat Sarah
Debarim (Deuteronomy) 2:2 – 2:30
Tehillim (Psalms) 108
Obadiah 1:21 + Micah 3:9 – 4:5
Mk 14:10-11, Lk 22:3-6, Rm 8:31-39
The verbal tallies between the Torah and the Psalm are:
LORD - ‫יהוה‬, Strong’s number 03068.
People - ‫עם‬, Strong’s number 05971.
The verbal tallies between the Torah and the Ashlamatot are:
LORD - ‫יהוה‬, Strong’s number 03068.
Mountain / Mount - ‫הר‬, Strong’s number 02022.
Esau - ‫עשו‬, Strong’s number 06215.
Spake / Say / Saying - ‫אמר‬, Strong’s number 0559.
Long enough / Many - ‫רב‬, Strong’s number 07227.
People - ‫עם‬, Strong’s number 05971.
Dwell / Sit - ‫ישב‬, Strong’s number 03427.
Debarim (Deuteronomy) 2:2 And the LORD <03068> spake <0559> (8799) unto me, saying <0559> (8800),
3 Ye have compassed this mountain <02022> long enough <07227>: turn you northward. 4 And command thou
the people <05971>, saying <0559> (8800), Ye are to pass through the coast of your brethren the children of Esau
<06215>, which dwell <03427> (8802) in Seir; and they shall be afraid of you: take ye good heed unto yourselves
therefore:
Tehillim (Psalms) 108:3 I will praise thee, O LORD <03068>, among the people <05971>: and I will sing praises
unto thee among the nations.
Obadiah 1:21 And saviours shall come up on mount <02022> Zion to judge the mount <02022> of Esau
<06215>; and the kingdom shall be the LORD’S <03068>.
Micah 3:11 The heads thereof judge for reward, and the priests thereof teach for hire, and the prophets thereof
divine for money: yet will they lean upon the LORD <03068>, and say <0559> (8800), Is not the LORD <03068>
among us? none evil can come upon us.
Micah 3:12 Therefore shall Zion for your sake be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the
Page 20 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
mountain <02022> of the house as the high places of the forest.
Micah 4:1 But in the last days it shall come to pass, that the mountain of the house of the LORD <03068> shall be
established in the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people <05971> shall flow unto
it.
Micah 4:2 And many <07227> nations shall come, and say <0559> (8804), Come, and let us go up to the
mountain <02022> of the LORD <03068>, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways,
and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the LORD <03068> from
Jerusalem.
Micah 4:4 But they shall sit <03427> (8804) every man under his vine and under his fig tree; and none shall make
them afraid: for the mouth of the LORD <03068> of hosts hath spoken it.
Hebrew:
Hebrew
English
vyai man, men
~yhil{a/ GOD
rm;a' saying, spoke
@a; also, too
#r,a, land, earth, ground
lAdG" great
rb;D' spoke, speak
rb'D' thing, word
%r,D, road, way
hy"h' became, become
%l;h' wanderings,
travel, come, walk
rh; mountain, mount
Torah Seder
Deu 2:2 – 2:30
Deut. 2:14
Deut. 2:16
Deut. 2:7
Deut. 2:29
Deut. 2:30
Deut. 2:2
Deut. 2:4
Deut. 2:9
Deut. 2:17
Deut. 2:26
Deut. 2:11
Deut. 2:20
Deut. 2:5
Deut. 2:9
Deut. 2:12
Deut. 2:19
Deut. 2:20
Deut. 2:24
Deut. 2:27
Deut. 2:29
Deut. 2:7
Deut. 2:10
Deut. 2:21
Deut. 2:17
Deut. 2:7
Deut. 2:26
Deut. 2:8
Deut. 2:27
Deut. 2:16
Deut. 2:7
Deut. 2:14
Deut. 2:27
Deut. 2:3
Deut. 2:5
Page 21 of 33
Psalms
Psa 108:1-13
Ps. 108:1
Ps. 108:5
Ps. 108:7
Ps. 108:11
Ps. 108:13
Ashlamatah
Obad 1:21 +
Micah 3:9 – 4:5
Mic. 4:4
Mic. 4:5
Mic. 4:2
Mic. 4:5
Mic. 3:11
Mic. 4:2
Ps. 108:1
Ps. 108:5
Ps. 108:4
Ps. 108:7
Mic. 4:4
Mic. 4:2
Mic. 4:2
Mic. 3:12
Mic. 4:1
Mic. 4:2
Mic. 4:5
Obad. 1:21
Mic. 3:12
Mic. 4:1
Mic. 4:2
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Hebrew
English
hz< this
hwhy LORD
~Ay time, day, today
ac'y" came, come
!ymiy" right
bv;y" live, lived
[v;y"
laer'f.yI
!WK
yKi
Torah Seder
Deu 2:2 – 2:30
Deut. 2:3
Deut. 2:7
Deut. 2:22
Deut. 2:25
Deut. 2:2
Deut. 2:7
Deut. 2:9
Deut. 2:12
Deut. 2:14
Deut. 2:15
Deut. 2:17
Deut. 2:21
Deut. 2:29
Deut. 2:30
Deut. 2:14
Deut. 2:18
Deut. 2:22
Deut. 2:25
Deut. 2:30
Deut. 2:23
Psalms
Psa 108:1-13
Deut. 2:27
Deut. 2:4
Deut. 2:8
Deut. 2:10
Deut. 2:12
Deut. 2:20
Deut. 2:21
Deut. 2:22
Deut. 2:23
Deut. 2:29
Ps. 108:6
save
Israel
lKo all, whole,
entire, every
@s,K, money
ba'Am Moab
hm'x'l.mi war
!mi any, away,
above, because
Ps. 108:11
Obad. 1:21
Mic. 3:9
Ps. 108:1
Page 22 of 33
Mic. 4:2
Mic. 4:4
Deut. 2:12
Deut. 2:5
Deut. 2:9
Deut. 2:19
Deut. 2:7
Deut. 2:14
Deut. 2:16
Deut. 2:25
Deut. 2:6
Deut. 2:28
Deut. 2:8
Deut. 2:9
Deut. 2:18
Deut. 2:9
Deut. 2:14
Deut. 2:16
Deut. 2:24
Deut. 2:5
Deut. 2:8
Deut. 2:9
Obad. 1:21
Mic. 3:11
Mic. 4:1
Mic. 4:2
Mic. 4:4
Mic. 4:5
Mic. 4:1
Ps. 108:6
steadfast, established
because
Ps. 108:3
Ashlamatah
Obad 1:21 +
Micah 3:9 – 4:5
Mic. 3:9
Mic. 4:1
Mic. 4:5
Ps. 108:5
Mic. 3:9
Mic. 4:5
Mic. 3:11
Ps. 108:9
Mic. 4:3
Ps. 108:4
Ps. 108:12
Mic. 4:1
Mic. 4:2
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Hebrew
English
Torah Seder
Deu 2:2 – 2:30
Deut. 2:19
Deut. 2:25
Deut. 2:4
Deut. 2:5
Deut. 2:8
Deut. 2:12
Deut. 2:22
Deut. 2:29
wf'[e Esau
ab'c' armies
br,q, within, inward
Psalms
Psa 108:1-13
Obad. 1:21
Ps. 108:11
Deut. 2:14
Deut. 2:15
Deut. 2:16
vaor head
Deut. 2:10
Deut. 2:21
Deut. 2:25
~yIm;v' heaven
[m;v' hear, heard
tx;T; place
Deut. 2:25
Deut. 2:12
Deut. 2:21
Deut. 2:22
Deut. 2:23
Deut. 2:25
Deut. 2:4
Deut. 2:10
Deut. 2:16
Deut. 2:21
Deut. 2:25
Deut. 2:12
Deut. 2:22
Deut. 2:29
Deut. 2:3
Deut. 2:10
Deut. 2:21
~[; people
hf'[' did, do, make
br' enough, numerous
Mic. 4:4
Mic. 3:11
Ps. 108:8
~Wr tall
Ashlamatah
Obad 1:21 +
Micah 3:9 – 4:5
Mic. 3:9
Mic. 3:11
Mic. 4:1
Ps. 108:5
Ps. 108:4
Ps. 108:5
Mic. 3:9
Mic. 4:4
Ps. 108:3
Mic. 4:1
Mic. 4:3
Mic. 4:5
Ps. 108:13
Mic. 4:2
Mic. 4:3
Greek:
Greek
English
ἀκούω
ἀπέρχομαι
ἀποθνήσκω
heard, hear
went
die
ἀργύριον
silver
ἀρχιερεύς
δεξιός
δίδωμι
chief priests
right
give, appoint
Torah Seder
Deu 2:2 – 2:30
Deut. 2:25
Psalms
Ps 108:1-13
Deu 2:14
Deu 2:16
Deu 2:6
Deu 2:28
Deut. 2:27
Deu 2:5
Deu 2:9
Ashlamatah
Obad 1:21 +
Mic 3:9 – 4:5
Mic. 3:9
Peshat
Mk/Jude/Pet
Mk 14:10-11
Mk. 14:11
Mk. 14:10
Remes 1
Luke
Lk 22:3-6
Remes 2
Acts/Romans
Rm 8:31-39
Lk. 22:4
Rom. 8:34
Mic 3:11
Ps. 108:6
Psa 108:12
Page 23 of 33
Mk. 14:11
Lk. 22:5
Mk. 14:10
Lk. 22:4
Mk. 14:11
Lk. 22:5
Rom. 8:34
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Greek
English
δύναμις
power, force
δώδεκα
ἐξομολογέω
ζητέω
ἡμέρα
twelve
acknowledgement, consented
sought, seek
days
θεός
GOD
Ἰουδάς
Ἰσκαριώτης
κύριος
Judas
Iscariot
LORD
λαλέω
λέγω
speak, spoke
say, speak
λογίζομαι
consider
παραδίδωμι
delivered
πᾶς
all, whole, entire, every
ποιέω
did, do, make
πολύς /
πολλός
υἱός
many much, high
χαίρω
glad
sons
Torah Seder
Deu 2:2 – 2:30
Deu 2:12
Deu 2:19
Deu 2:25
Deu 2:29
Psalms
Ps 108:1-13
Ashlamatah
Obad 1:21 +
Mic 3:9 – 4:5
Peshat
Mk/Jude/Pet
Mk 14:10-11
Remes 1
Luke
Lk 22:3-6
Psa 108:11
Psa 108:13
Rom. 8:38
Mk. 14:10
Psa 108:3
Mk. 14:11
Deut. 2:14
Deut. 2:18
Deut. 2:22
Deut. 2:25
Deut. 2:30
Deut. 2:7
Deut. 2:29
Deut. 2:30
Ps. 108:1
Ps. 108:5
Ps. 108:7
Ps. 108:11
Ps. 108:13
Lk. 22:3
Lk. 22:6
Lk. 22:6
Mic. 4:1
Rom. 8:36
Mic. 4:2
Mic. 4:5
Rom. 8:31
Rom. 8:33
Rom. 8:34
Rom. 8:39
Mk. 14:10
Mk. 14:10
Deut. 2:2
Deut. 2:7
Deut. 2:9
Deut. 2:12
Deut. 2:14
Deut. 2:15
Deut. 2:17
Deut. 2:21
Deut. 2:29
Deut. 2:30
Deut. 2:17
Deut. 2:2
Deut. 2:4
Deut. 2:9
Deut. 2:17
Deut. 2:26
Deu 2:11
Deu 2:20
Deu 2:24
Deu 2:30
Deut. 2:7
Deut. 2:14
Deut. 2:16
Deut. 2:25
Deut. 2:12
Deut. 2:22
Deut. 2:29
Deu 2:10
Deu 2:21
Deu 2:4
Deu 2:8
Deu 2:9
Deu 2:12
Deu 2:19
Deu 2:22
Deu 2:29
Remes 2
Acts/Romans
Rm 8:31-39
Ps. 108:3
Obad. 1:21
Mic. 3:11
Mic. 4:1
Mic. 4:2
Mic. 4:4
Mic. 4:5
Ps. 108:7
Mic. 4:4
Mic. 3:11
Mic. 4:2
Lk. 22:3
Lk. 22:3
Rom. 8:39
Rom. 8:31
Rom. 8:36
Mk. 14:10
Mk. 14:11
Ps. 108:5
Lk. 22:4
Lk. 22:6
Mic. 3:9
Mic. 4:5
Rom. 8:32
Rom. 8:32
Rom. 8:37
Ps. 108:13
Mic 4:2
Mic 4:3
Rom. 8:32
Mk. 14:11
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Lk. 22:5
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Page 25 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
NAZAREAN TALMUD
SIDRA OF “D’BARIM?” (DEUT.) “2:2 — 2:30”
“RAB-LAKHEM” “MUCH TO YOU”
BY: H. EM RABBI DR. ELIYAHU BEN ABRAHAM &
H. EM. HAKHAM DR. YOSEF BEN HAGGAI
SCHOOL OF HAKHAM SHAUL’S TOSEFTA
LUQAS (LK)
Mishnah ‫א‬:‫א‬
SCHOOL OF HAKHAM TSEFET’S PESHAT
MORDECHAI (MK)
Mishnah ‫א‬:‫א‬
And the adversary arose in Yehudah, the one called
Ish Keriyoth, who was of the number of the twelve
talmidim. And he went away and conferred with the
Principal Kohanim and officers of the temple guards
how he could betray54 him (Yeshua) to them. And they
were delighted, and came to an agreement with him to
give him money. And he agreed, and began looking for
a favorable opportunity to betray him to them apart
from the congregation.
And Yehudah Ish Keriyoth, one of the twelve
talmidim went out to the Kohen Gadol in order to
hand (betray) him55 (Yeshua) to them. And they (the
Kohen Gadol and his soferim) were delighted
(greatly) and promised to give him money.56 Then he
(Yehudah Ish Keriyoth) sought how he might find a
convenient opportunity to deliver57 (betray) him
(Yeshua) to them.
SCHOOL OF HAKHAM SHAUL’S REMES
ROMANS
Mishnah ‫א‬:‫א‬
What then will we say58 about these things? If God is for us, the Jewish people,59 who can be against us? He
(God) who did not hold back as a special treasure for Himself,60 His own son61(Israel/Messiah), but handed him
down62 as a living Mesorah for us all, how will He not with63 him (Messiah) also show us His (God's) loving
kindness? Who will set himself against the chosen of God? It is God who takes up our fight64 (cause) and
renders a favorable verdict for us. Who but God has the power65 (right hand66 - authority) to judge us? It is
Key verbal tally to D’barim 2:24, Mk. 14:10, and Rm. 8:32
Key verbal tally to D’barim 2:24, Mk. 14:10, and Rm. 8:32
56 Verbal connection to D’barim 2:6
57 Verbal connection to D’barim 2:5
58 Verbal Tally to D’barim 2:2
59 Contextually we MUST read the "Jewish people" because we as the Jewish people are the great treasure of G-d.
60 Keep or hold back as a treasure for Himself
61
Verbal Tally to D’barim 2:4
62 Key verbal tally to D’barim 2:24, Mk. 14:10, and Lk. 22:4
63 Here we see that Messiah is the tool or agent whereby G-d will accomplish his “goal” – τέλος, Cf. Romans 10:4. G-d will extend to us His
loving-kindness. However, His loving kindness through Messiah is found to be merited through obedience to the Mesorah of the Master.
Loving-kindness is merited through faithful obedience.
64 "to take up a legal cause, show justice, do justice, take up a cause" Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English
lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature. "Based on Walter Bauer's Griechisch-deutsches Wrterbuch zu den
Schriften des Neuen Testaments und der frhchristlichen [sic] Literatur, sixth edition, ed. Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, with Viktor
Reichmann and on previous English editions by W.F. Arndt, F.W. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker." (3rd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago
Press. p. 249
65 Here δεξιός, means “right.” In literal terms, i.e. Peshat we know that δεξιός, usually refers to things on the right or the right hand.
However, in Remes the phrase takes up allegorical meanings such as “authority” etc. The three columns of right, left and center are Remes
for the “Creator of the Universe, “creative power” and “royal power.” Here then we see that Hakham Shaul id focusing on “Royal power” or
the “powers of the right column.” Cf. Philo’s discussion on Abraham 1:119-132
66 Verbal connection to D’barim 2:14
54
55
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BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Messiah who died, and furthermore is risen, who also makes intercession67 for us. Who then will separate us
from the love of Messiah? Will tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or
sword? As it is written: "But for Your sake we are killed all day68 long; We are considered as sheep to be
slaughtered."(Psa 44:22) Yet in all these things, we are more than conquerors through Him (God) who loved
us. For I am persuaded that neither death69 nor life, nor angels nor principalities nor powers, nor things
present nor things to come, nor height nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us
from the love of God which is in Yeshua HaMashiach our master.
Nazarean Codicil to be read in conjunction with the following Torah Seder
Deut 2:2 – 2:30 Ps 108 Obad 1:21 + Micah 3:9 – 4:5 Mordechai 14:10-11 1 Luqas 22:3-6 Romans 8:31-39
COMMENTARY TO HAKHAM TSEFET’S SCHOOL OF PESHAT
ONE OF THE TWELVE TALMIDIM
That Yehudah Ish Keriyoth is “one of the twelve” is troubling for scholars. Even in the selection of the “twelve,” 70
we have the troubling statement that Yehudah Ish Keriyoth will be a “betrayer.”71 This incorporation of Yehudah
Ish Keriyoth demonstrates Yeshua’s prophetic skills from before the selection of the twelve. This is not to limit his
prophetic insights to the years of his ministry only. This is another matter to be discussed else ware.
MOTIVE
When we search Mordechai for a motive to explain Yehudah Ish Keriyoth actions, superficially, we draw a blank.
Scholars suggest avarice, mutiny and disappointment. For whatever reason, Hakham Tsefet does not feel like we
need this information at present. We may be able to draw some inferences, however, these would be more in line
with speculation, rather than honest hermeneutic. The text merely reads And Yehudah Ish Keriyoth, one of the
twelve talmidim went out to the Kohen Gadol in order to hand (betray) him (Yeshua) to them. And they (the
Kohen Gadol and his soferim) were delighted (greatly) and promised to give him money.
Note that the text does not tell us that he “asked for money.” It ONLY tells us that they “promised to give him
money.” This is not to say that Yehudah did or did not ask for money. The text simply does not tell us that. If this is
the motive, we must draw on other Peshat materials to derive this conclusion.
Here we would suggest that it is plausible to believe that there was some other motive. However, this does not rule
out avarice as a potential motive.
Others suggest that Yehudah may have been disenchanted about Yeshua as Messiah. They suggest the possibility
that Yehudah lost his confidence in Yeshua as the promised Davidic Messiah. Again, we reiterate all of this is
conjecture drawing from other “Gospels” circumventing Peshat.
BETRAYAL / HAND OVER
The in the present context is the real meaning of the Greek phrase, “παραδίδωμι – paradidomi means, “to hand
One should not think that “intercession” is only for the positive. Ẻντυγχάνω means appeal to and or complain against. Intercession can be
on one’s behalf or against disobedient actions.
68 Verbal connection to D’barim 2:14
69 Verbal connection to D’barim 2:14
70 Cf. Mar 3:19
71 Literally, meaning the one who handed (παραδίδωμι Yeshua) over. We will discuss this idea further in the Remes commentary below.
67
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BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
over.” However we will look into this word in the Remes commentary with greater diligence. Here, betrayal is by
inference rather than direct definition. We must admit that we want to call Yehudah the “barking dog.” 72 However,
in the present pericope there does not seem to be any real “barking.” Mordechai will illustrate in the future just how
Yehudah accomplishes his “handing over,” but he does not yet disclose this information.
It appears that Hakham Tsefet plays down the role of Yehudah in his Mesorah. Exactly why is a mystery. To
conjecture would be pure supposition. There is nothing wrong with conjecture so long as there is some sufficient
hint to make a possible thesis.
THE MAN FROM KERIYOTH
Yehudah’s identity is been clouded in mystery for most readers. In the list of commentaries, only two make note the
possible identity of Yehudah.
France73 notes that Yehudah is not a “Galilean.” Here France wants us to know that Yehudah was not a
“hometown” boy from Galilee, and therefore suspicious.74 France correctly translates Ισκαριώτης Iskariotes as “Man
from Keriyoth.”75 However, France misses that fact the Yehudah was from Moab rather than Eretz Yisrael.76
Taylor77 in her article, “The Name “Iskarioth” (Iscariot)” notes the complexity of trying to translate this name.
Overall, this appears to indicate that “Judas” was designated by a Hebrew or Aramaic name transliterated as
Ἰσκαριώθ and rendered in Greek form as Ἰσκαριώτης. There is more of a tendency to standardize the epithet in
Greek form rather than to retrieve or preserve the Hebrew or Aramaic form.
The leading theory is…
The epithet translates Hebrew, ‫ ִּאיׁש קְ ִּריֹות‬- ish kerioth, meaning “a man from Qarioth”, this place being
attested in Eusebius, Onom. 120.1; cf. Jer 48:24, 41; Amos 2:2. The interpretation has been supported by Paul
Billerbeck, Julius Wellhausen, Donatus Haugg, and Gustaf Dalman.78 As a variant of this proposal, the epithet
is taken to mean “a man of towns,” a town-dweller—the town in question being Jerusalem (Günther
Schwartz).79
Taylor also cites another possible translation based on the work of Jewish scholar Yoel Abreitman…
The epithet is derived from an Aramaic word for “red color,” on the basis of the root rqs, so that it means a
“redhead” or “ruddy-colored,” as in Arabic, where šuqra can mean “a ruddy complexion” (Harald Ingholt),80
or “red dyer,” supposedly saqqara, as Albert Ehrman suggests.81 The most careful argument has been
provided by Yoel Arbeitman.82 The reference is then simply to Judas’s employment or appearance.83
72
Here we intend to imply that Yehudah was a Gentile who betrayed the Master and his talmidim like some spy bought by the defuncet
Kohanim.
73 France, R. (2002). The New International Greek Testament Commentary, The Gospel of Mark. (p. 556) Grand Rapids MI: Wm. B.
Eerdmand Publishing Co.
74 My interpretation of France’s intention
75 Ibid p. 163
76 Ibid
77 Joan Taylor, The Name “Iskarioth” (Iscariot) JBL 129/2 (2010) 367–83, copyright © 2010 by the Society of Biblical Literature.
78 Str-B 1:536–37; Wellhausen, Das Evangelium Marci (Berlin: Georg Reimer, 1903); Haugg, Judas Iskarioth in den neutestamentlichen
Berichten (Freiburg: Herder, 1930); and Dalman, Jesus-Jeshua: Studies in the Gospels (trans. Paul Levertoff; London: SPCK, 1929; German
orig., 1922).
79 Ibid
80 Ingholt, “The Surname of Judas Iscariot,” in Studia Orientalia Ioanni Pedersen Septuagenario (Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1953), 152–62.
81 A. Ehrman, “Judas Iscariot and Abba Saqqara,” JBL 97 (1978): 572–73.
82 Yoel Arbeitman, “The Suffix of Iscariot,” JBL 99 (1980): 122–24
83 Joan Taylor, The Name “Iskarioth” (Iscariot) JBL 129/2 (2010) 367–83, copyright © 2010 by the Society of Biblical Literature.
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BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Cane in his work labeled “The place of Judas Iscariot in Christology” notes another possible interpretation of
“Iscariot.”
The relevant critical discussion involves understanding that in the New Testament Judas' name takes two forms,
either having a Semitic ending (three times) or a Greek ending (nine times, in Matthew, Luke and John).
Scholars differ as to which is the original, but the Greek ending seems to have the more convincing arguments
in favor. C.C. Torrey (The Name "Iscariot ' in Harvard Theological Review 36, 1943. p56) argues that a scribe
would hardly likely to alter a good Hebrew ending for a Greek, whilst the converse move might be understood
as an 'improvement'. Yoel Arbeitman ('The suffix of Iscariot' in Journal Biblical Literature 99, 1980, p. 123
argues that the name Iscariot was the product of authors familiar both with Aramaic and Greek putting an
Aramaic actor noun for '(red) dyer' into Greek form. This suggestion from a Jewish scholar, is striking in its
prosaic plausibility, especially when compared with the wide range of other proposals.84
Thus, the apparent possible suggestions for Yehudah Ish Keriyoth are numerous. The whole list includes the idea of
a robber and a liar and dagger man etc.
In favor of the leading opinion, Taylor85 remarks…
In favor of this suggestion is the fact that it may possibly be related to an early Western text manuscript
tradition relating to the Gospel of John, which might satisfy the final criterion. So, for example, in John 6:71a
the f13 family of manuscripts along with the uncorrected * (Sinaiticus, fourth century) and Θ (Koridethi,
ninth century) have ἔλεγεν δὲ τὸν Ἰούδαν Σίμωνος ἀπὸ Καρυώτου. This occurs also in a Greek marginal reading
of the Harclean Syriac version. In John 12:4, for Ἰούδας ὁ Ἰσκαριώτης εἷς ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ, D (followed
by its Latin part) has εἷς ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ Ἰούδας ἀπὸ Καρυώτου. For John 13:2, D has Ἰούδα Σίμωνος
ἀπὸ Καρυώτου; for John 3:26, Ἰούδα Σίμωνος ἀπὸ Καρυώτου; and likewise for John 14:22, Ἰούδας οὐχ ὁ ἀπὸ
Καρυώτου. With the original hand of Sinaiticus attesting this interpretation, it must be traced as far back as the
fourth century, and this opens up at least the possibility that some ancient tradition is reflected in the copyist’s
choice, which would have Judas’s epithet relating to his provenance. A possible reflection of the same
interpretation appears to be found in a couple of Latin manuscripts of the Synoptic Gospels so that the name
“Cariotha” appears in Mark 3:19 (italic e: Palatinus, fifth century), and “Carioth” in Matt 10:4 (italic aur:
Aureus, seventh century), though here there is no preposition and an upsilon would be rendered as Latin i.86
Miller,87 playing on the possibility of the “red man” suggests that the “red man” or “red headed man” is an
association with Esau, the “red man” or redheaded brother of Yaakov.
In concluding that Yehudah Ish Keriyoth is the man from Keriyoth located in Moab this makes him a full convert to
Judaism and a talmid of the Master. This speaks volumes to those who will hear. As for the reasoning behind his
betrayal of the Master, this is a matter for deeper research on a higher plane of hermeneutic.
Commentary to Hakham Shaul’s School of Remes
TEXTUAL DISCUSSION AND CONTINUITY TO THE PESHAT OF HAKHAM TSEFET
84
Cane, A. (2005). The place of Judas Iscariot in Christology. (pp. 16-17) Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
The title can be misleading. Joan Taylor actually has another proposal, which she presents at the end of her paper.
86 Joan Taylor, The Name “Iskarioth” (Iscariot) JBL 129/2 (2010) 367–83, copyright © 2010 by the Society of Biblical Literature.
87 Miller, D. (1990). The Gospel of Mark as Midrash on Earlier Jewish and New Testament Litrature (p. 129) (Vol. 21). Lewiston, New
York: The Edwin Mellen Press.
85
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BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
As is usual we need to look at some of the translation mechanics and hermeneutics. Verbal and thematic tallies are
prevalent throughout the Nazarean texts this week. We will draw attention to the Greek word παραδίδωμι paradidomi. This word or a derivative appears in several places this week. We will refer the reader to the verbal
connections mentioned in the footnotes and listed tallies above. The usual translation of verse 32 reads “but
delivered him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?” While there is a definite
Peshat sense of being “delivered up,” the true Remes answer and translation should not say “delivered up” but
“handed down!” The Gingrich Greek Lexicon88 entries 3-4 shows that παραδίδωμι – paradidomi is associated
with the idea of “handing down, pass on, transmit, relate, teach oral or written tradition.” Entry #4 is associated
with the Rabbinic activity of “binding i.e. forbidding or restraining and loosing i.e. allowing and permitting. The
Theological Dictionary of the New Testament in entry #6 sees παραδοῦναι “as a technical term when its object is
teaching etc. Thus it is used of the Halachic tradition of the Jews.” It is also used of the matter of the Gospel
(Mesorah) in Lk. 1:2, and of the commands (δόγματα) of the apostolic council.”89 The “Liddell Scott” Greek
English Lexicon90 associates παραδίδωμι – paradidomi with the Persian postal couriers and those who ran with the
torch for the games. Interestingly, this word binds the entire Torah Seder together as noted in the footnotes.
Consequently, this means that as a principal matter, the Master was to be a “Mesorah handed down” as a living
Mesorah. G-d did not “hold back” – spare the special treasure of His son. Allegorically speaking we can see that
Messiah is the son of G-d, but this truth also depicts the B’ne Yisrael as B’ne Elohim, i.e. “sons of G-d.” We might
say that Messiah is a living personification of the B’ne Yisrael and, that the B’ne Yisrael is a collective
personification of Messiah. This allegory also reveals that just as Messiah is a living personification of the Torah,
Oral and written, so are the B’ne Yisrael. Therefore, just as the Master is “handed down” to or for the glory of us all
(the Jewish people) we are also handed down to the Gentiles as a living Mesorah. Be it, butcher or baker we are a
living Mesorah. A butcher demonstrates the Mesorah as a living model of how to prepare food. Likewise, the Baker
is a Mesorah for bread etc.
When we break down the compound word “παραδίδωμι,” - paradidōmi, we can see from its parts other truths. Its
compounded parts are παρά - para and δίδωμι - didōmi. Δίδωμι - didōmi has forty-two possible parallels in
Hebrew as used by the LXX chief of which is “halakhah.” All of these small pieces to the puzzle show us that
Messiah and the Jewish people are walking Mesoroth presented to the Gentiles.
Messiah’s suffering is often exaggerated. Here we do not want to diminish the sufferings of the Master nor their
precious value. Here we are pointing out that every Jewish soul carries the pain of a persecuted history in his DNA.
The Master as a prototypical Jew died and was resurrected as a testimony of what we wait for. The coming ages
“Y’mot HaMashiach” is then not just only an exaltation of Messiah, but also an adulation of those who have
followed in his foot steps and conducted their lives in the very same way as the Master. In other words, we are as
responsible for the “Y’mot HaMashiach” as is the Master. Again, the reader must not think that we are in any way
demeaning the Master. As Messiah has suffered and triumphed, so will we. As it is written: "But for Your sake
we are killed all day91 long; We are considered as sheep to be slaughtered. (Psa 44:22)”
THE CANAAN CONNECTION – MORE THAN CONQUERORS
Tehillim - Psa 44:2-3 You drove out the nations with Your hand, But them You planted; You afflicted the
peoples, and cast them out. For they did not gain possession of the land by their own sword, Nor did their
own arm save them; But it was Your right hand, Your arm, and the light of Your countenance, Because
You favored them.
88
Bauer, Walter, and F. Wilbur Gingrich. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Second
Edition. Edited by William F. Arndt and Frederick W. Danker. 2nd edition. Chicago: The University Of Chicago Press, 1979. p. 148
89Theological dictionary of the New Testament. 1964-c1976. Vols. 5-9 edited by Gerhard Friedrich. Vol. 10 compiled by Ronald Pitkin. (G.
Kittel, G. W. Bromiley & G. Friedrich, Ed.) Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. p. 2:171
90 Liddell, H. G., and Robert Scott, eds. An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon: Founded upon the Seventh Edition of Liddell and Scott’s
Greek-English Lexicon. 7 edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1945. p. 128
91 Verbal connection to D’barim 2:14
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BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Hakham Shaul cites as a paraphrase Psalms 44:22. It may be better said that Hakham Shaul cited a piece of the
Psalm referring to the whole, i.e. pars pro toto. A brief overview of the Psalm shows numerous connections both
verbal and thematic. The Psalmist looks forward to the day when the Jewish people are settled in Eretz Yisrael and
freed from the tyranny of its oppressors. It would appear that Hakham Shaul sees beyond the sons of Korah in that
Eretz Yisrael is the whole earth rather than a small stretch of land along the Mediterranean.
However, what is Hakham Shaul trying to say when he informs us that the Jewish people are more than
conquerors?
We find two principal things that demonstrate and explain what Hakham Shaul is saying. Firstly, we note in verse 5
of the present Torah Seder (D’barim 2:5) that G-d speaks telling the B’ne Yisrael not to set one foot in the territory
of Esau. In verse 9 G-d furthers his instruction telling them not to harass Moab. Careful attention shows that these
are the neighboring lands. What strikes our attention is that fact that Yehudah Ish Kerioth is associated with these
lands. When Psalm 44 is read in conjunction with the present Pericope of Romans, Mordechai (Mark) and Luqas
(Luke) and the present Torah Seder the staggering truth becomes evident. Being more than a conqueror means that
G-d is the victor. This is not to say that we do not have to do our part. Not setting “one foot” in the lands of others
means that we realize that we do not have to. Here our intention is that we can say that we have enough because Gd is our “peace.” Another Hebrew possibility for the Greek word δίδωμι - didōmi discussed above is Shalam – i.e.
Shalom. Here we learn that the B’ne Yisrael do not have to go on expeditions of forced conversions etc. being more
than a conqueror means that the Jewish people want to live in peace devoted to Torah observance. We conquer
what is needful for peace and no more.
Rashi comments of the wording of D’barim 2:4 -5 Be very careful: And what is this "being careful"? “You will not
provoke them.” And verse 5 not so much as a foot: step meaning, even only for the sole of the foot to tread a
single step, I do not permit you to enter their land without permission. An Aggadic interpretation is: [I will not give
you of their land] until the day arrives when the foot will tread upon the Mount of Olives [the Messianic era], as it
said: “And his [God’s agent] feet will [figuratively] stand [on that day upon the Mount of Olives]” (Zech. 14:4).
SEVEN AND TEN
The pericope of Romans is especially suited to the opening passages of the Torah Seder. D’barim 2:3 “You have
circled this mountain long enough; turn northward.”
Hakham Shaul takes note and uses a bulleted list of ten words to suggest how the Nazareans will enter the Y’mot
HaMashiach. Key to our pericope are the words “height, depth and anything.”
Prayerfully we do not need to point out that the list of seven and ten relate to the Ten and the seven men of the
Esnoga. The ten men can only be complete when there are seven Paqidim to function in their offices.
The first list of seven represents experiential troubles that will be faced in the Diaspora. As such, the counterparts to
these troubles are the cure of Seven Paqidim. These plenipotentiary agents are the designated resolution to each of
the troubles Hakham Shaul has listed. It should also be evident that these “seven” troubles align themselves with
trumpets, seals, bowls, and plagues of the Revelation.
Seven Troubles
Tribulation
Distress
Persecution
Famine
Nakedness
Peril
Seven Paqidim
Hesed - Masoret
Gevurah – Hazan
Teforet – Darshan (Prophet)
Netzach – Parnas #1
Hod – Parnas #2
Yesod – Parnas #3 (Female)
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BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Sword
Malchut – Moreh
Table #1
The match is overwhelmingly thorough.
Ten Cosmic powers
Ten men of the Esnoga
Life
Hokhmah – Chief Hakham - Apostle
Death
Binah – 2nd on the bench of 3 - Apostle
Angels
Da’at – 3rd on the bench of 3 - Apostle
Present things
Hesed - Masoret
Height
Gevurah - Hazan
Things to come
Tiferet – Darshan (Prophet)
Powers
Netzach – Parnas #1
Principalities
Hod – Parnas #2
Depth
Yesod – Parnas #3 (Female)
Creation
Malkhut – Moreh
Table #2
Relational Malakhim
Holy Chayyoth – living beings
Ofanim - Spheres
Er’elim – Great Ones
Chashmalim – Fiery beings
Serafim – Burned (burning) Ones
Mal’achim - Emissaries
Elohim - Judges
B’ne Elohim - Sons of the Judges
Keruvim – Kings/Queens
Ishim - Men
The above table shows how Hakham Shaul viewed the Esnoga and Ecclesiology in relation to cosmological powers
and government. Each office is especially suited to a corresponding “power.” Again, Hakham Shaul is
prophetically confident that the Jewish people, even as they walked into the Diaspora, maltreated and persecuted, in
the end they would survive and flourish as the “son of G-d.” This is because they had leaders like Hakham Tsefet,
Hakham Shaul and others who had the prophetic foresight to see the coming of this long exile for the sake of a
cosmic tikun.
Some Questions to Ponder:
1. From all the readings for this Shabbat, which reading touched your heart and fired your imagination?
2. What part of the Torah Seder fired the heart and imagination of the Psalmist for this week?
3. What part of the Torah Seder fired the heart and the imagination of the prophet this week?
4. What part/s of the Torah Seder, Psalm, and the prophets fired the heart and the imagination of Hakham
Tsefet for this week?
5. After taking into consideration all the above texts and our Torah Seder, what would you say is the general
prophetic message from the Scriptures for this coming week?
Blessing After Torah Study
Barúch Atáh Adonai, Elohénu Meléch HaOlám,
Ashér Natán Lánu Torát Emét, V'Chayéi Olám Natá B'Tochénu.
Barúch Atáh Adonái, Notén HaToráh. Amen!
Blessed is Ha-Shem our God, King of the universe,
Page 32 of 33
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)
Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
Who has given us a teaching of truth, implanting within us eternal life.
Blessed is Ha-Shem, Giver of the Torah. Amen!
“Now unto Him who is able to preserve you faultless, and spotless, and to establish you without a blemish,
before His majesty, with joy, [namely,] the only one God, our Deliverer, by means of Yeshua the Messiah our Master, be
praise, and dominion, and honor, and majesty, both now and in all ages. Amen!”
Coming Festivals:
Fast of Esther
Adar 13, 5775 – Wednesday 4th of March, 2015
For further information see: http://www.betemunah.org/esther.html
Purim
Adar 14, 5775 – Thursday 5th of March, 2015
For further information see: http://www.betemunah.org/allegories.html ;
http://www.betemunah.org/purim.html ;
http://www.betemunah.org/purims.html & http://www.betemunah.org/r2r.html
Next Shabbat:
Shabbat “Zakhor” – “Remember”
Shabbat
Torah Reading:
Weekday Torah Reading:
‫זָכֹור‬
Reader 1 – Debarim 24:19-22
Reader 2 – Debarim 25:1-4
Reader 3 – Debarim 25:5-7
Reader 4 – Debarim 25:8-10
Reader 5 – Debarim 25:11-13
Reader 6 – Debarim 25:14-16
Psalm 2:1-12
Reader 7 – Debarim 25:17-19
Maftir – Debarim 25:17-19
N.C.: Rev. 13:11 – 14:12; 15:2-4
I Samuel 15:1-34
“Zakhor”
“Remember”
“Acuérdate”
Debarim (Deut.) 24:19 – 25:19
Ashlamatah: I Samuel 15:1-34
Shabbat Shalom!
Hakham Dr. Yosef ben Haggai
Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David
Rabbi Dr. Eliyahu ben Abraham
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Reader 1 – D’barim 2:31-33
Reader 2 – D’barim 2:34-37
Reader 3 – D’barim 2:31-37
Reader 1 – D’barim 2:31-33
Reader 2 – D’barim 2:34-37
Reader 3 – D’barim 2:31-37
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