Cognitive Science and PLTL

advertisement
OVERVIEW
Self-Directed Learner
Constructivism
Expertise
Assessment
THINK-PAIR-SHARE
Think and Write (briefly): What is your conception of a
self-directed learner?
Pair: Briefly describe your ideas to a partner.
Share: Report your ideas or your partner’s ideas to the
rest of us.
MY CONCEPTION OF A SELF-DIRECTED LEARNER
DEVELOPING SELF-DIRECTED LEARNERS
•
Research shows that students who have strengths in the areas identified in my
graphic organizer usually achieve at higher levels than students who do not.
•
PLTL Leaders are not there to answer students’ questions about content. Rather,
their role is to help students find or figure out answers on their own so they don’t
become dependent upon others and so they feel control over their own destiny.
•
Training peer leaders should include attention to students’ content knowledge,
thinking and learning s skills, affect, and to transferring what they have learned
to various new situations.
•
Training peer leaders to develop self-directed learners can begin with leaders selfevaluating their own strengths and weaknesses in these areas. Because they did
well enough the course to be selected as peer leaders, they are likely to have
substantial strengths in these areas, but everyone can make improvements!
STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING
SELF-DIRECTED LEARNERS
Self-talk before, during and after engaging in an academic
tasks to promote awareness and control over thinking
processes and products. It includes silent self-talk
(Vygotsky) and thinking aloud .
Self-questioning to guide thinking before, during and after
engaging in academic tasks. For example, “What do I know
about problems like this one? “ “ How can I judge whether
this approach is headed in the right direction?” “How can I
make sure that next time I don’t make the same mistakes
I made this time?” (Schoenfeld)
STRATEGIES FOR SELF-DIRECTED LEARNERS
• Set both short and long-term goals.
• Budget time for tasks using the 3x expected rule
• Experiment with study strategies to determine what works best
for particular situations. Include experimenting with a variety of
graphic organizers.
• Tailor test taking strategies to particular types of tests, courses
and professors.
• Analyze errors on tests to determine why they were made and
how they can be prevented in the future.
PLANNING PEER-LEADER TRAINING, HOW MIGHT YOU USE THE IDEAS
ON THESE SLIDES TO PREPARE PEER LEADERS FOR HELPING
STUDENTS BECOME MORE SELF-DIRECTED LEARNERS?
CONSTRUCTIVISM
Research on learning in higher education has shown extensive benefits of
using constructivist approaches to teaching and learning when
compared with traditional, lecture-based approaches. In particular, they
tend to lead to more meaningful learning, deeper understanding, and
greater ability to apply what has been learned.
What is constructivism?
Misconceptions: physical vs. mental activity; small vs. large group settings
Link to article on constructivism with resources on pedagogy and specific
references for biology , chemistry, geosciences, and physics (Geer &
Rudge) http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/crowther/ejse/geer.pdf
Two major types of constructivism: cognitive and social.
COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVISM
(DEWEY, PIAGET, BRUNER)
Active Learning: mental activity instead of passive
reception
Constructing Meaning: personal processing creates
understanding
Prior Knowledge: valid, invalid & conceptual change
http://www2.ucsc.edu/mlrg/proc4abstracts.html
Schemas: add, refine, change
Disequilibrium: produce conflict for cognitive
reorganization to think at a higher level
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM (VYGOTSKY)
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): reach a higher
level of intellectual performance with assistance.
More Knowledgeable Other: source of development
within the ZPD. Originally it was just people, now it
includes computers!
Scaffolding: providing temporary support to perform at a
higher level.
Tools Mediating Thought: such as language, writing,
mathematical symbols, periodic table, equations,
Punnet Square, Laws of Motion
EXPERTISE
Combination of knowledge, skills, understandings &
dispositions/attitudes; includes reflective practice
General Characteristics of Experts Includes:
pattern recognition, extensive content knowledge, fluid information
retrieval, contextualized applications, flexible approaches,
BUT no guarantee expert can teach! (National Research Council,
2000)
Characteristics of Expert Teachers:
extensive content knowledge; general pedagogy ; content-specific
pedagogy; know learner characteristics, context, & purpose of
learning (Shulman 1987)
HOW CAN YOU HELP PEER LEADERS THINK MORE LIKE EXPERTS?
ASSESSMENT
Formative Evaluation
-questions
- discussions
-observations of group work
-homework
- nonverbal communication
- exit slips
Summative Evaluation
- unit tests
-midterm
-final exam
-course grade
HOW CAN YOU TRAIN PEER LEADERS USE THESE ASSESSMENTS?
EXIT SLIP
Write the answers on a slip of paper, without your name,
& submit it.
1. What is something from this session that you found
difficult to understand?
2. What are two topics from this session that you would
like to know more about?
REFERENCES
Bruner, J. ( 1960). The Process of Education. Harvard University Press. Cambridge,
MA
Dewey, J. (1933). How We Think. Heath Publishing. New York
Geer, U.C., & Rudge, D.W. A Review of Research on Constructivist Strategies in
Large Lecture Science Classes.
http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/crowther/ejse/geer.pdf
Accessed 7/9/12
Hartman, H. J. (2009). A Guide to Reflective Practice for New and Experienced
Teachers. McGraw-Hill: New York
Hartman, H. J. (2009- ) Discovering and Uncovering Piaget.
http://zunal.com/webquest.php?w=22695 Accessed 7/11/12
REFERENCES CONTINUED
National Research Council (2000). How People Learn. National Academies Press.
Washington, D.C.
Piaget, J. (1971). To Understand is to Invent. Viking Press, New York
Schoenfeld, A. (1989). Teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving. In L.B.
Resnick & L. Klopfer (Eds.) Toward the Thinking Curriculum: Current cognitive
research (pp. 83-103). Yearbook for the American Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA.
Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching. Harvard Educational Review. 57(1), 121
Vygotsky, L ( 1962) Thought and Language. The M.I.T. Press: Cambridge, MA
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in Society. Harvard University. Cambridge, MA
Download
Related flashcards
Pseudoscience

31 Cards

Ethology

48 Cards

Perception

22 Cards

Create flashcards