Unit 3 Protists are eukaryotes that are not member of the Plant, Animal or Fungi kingdoms. Most (but not all) are unicellular One way protists can be classified is by how they obtain nutrition: o Heterotrophs- called animal-like protists o Photosynthesizers- called plant-like protists o Decomposers and parasites- called fungus-like protists. Animal-like: Amoeba Plant-like: Euglena Fungus-like: Slime Molds There are four phyla of animal-like protists o Zooglagellates o Sarcodines o Ciliates o Sporozoans Animal-like protists are classified by their means of movement. Animal-like protists that swim using flagella are called zooflagellates. Flagella are long, whiplike projections that allow a cell to move. Sarcodines are animal-like protists that have pseudopods. Pseudopods (false foot) are temporary cytoplasmic projections used for feeding or movement. Flexible, active cells with thick pseudopods that extend out of the central mass of the cell. Cilates use cilia for feeding and movement. Cilia are short hair like projections that propel a cell. The paramecium is an example of a ciliate. o The cilia are grouped into rows and bundles and beat in a regular pattern. Sporozoans do not move on their own- they are parasitic Some animal-like protists cause serious diseases, such as malia Label the following parts on the below paramecium. o Cilia o Oral Groove o Micronucleus o Macronucleus o Trichocysts Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom: Protista, Phylum: Sarcodina contain pseudopods= false feet Pseudopods used for both movement and feeding o Feeding: Phagocytosis- pseudopods extend out and wrap around food particles, making a food vacuole. The food will eventually be digested by the lysosomes. The contractile vacuole is used to pump out excess water out of the cell. Domain:Eukarya, Kingdom: Protista, Phylum: Cilaphora Move by tiny hair-like projections called cilia. The pellicle is a thick outer membrane, reason Paramecium cannot change their shape. Two types of nuclei: Macronucleus and Micronucleus Feeding: Heterotrophs, food enters through the oral groove, and become a food vacuole. Undigested food particles are eliminated through the anal pore. Trichocysts are threadlike structures used as a defense mechanism Plant-like protists contain chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis. Plant-like protists are commonly called “algae” Algae are sometimes classified with the plants. Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom: Protists, Phylum: Euglenophyta Move through the use of a flagella Feeding: can be both an autotroph and a heterotroph o Autotroph: sunlight and the use of chloroplasts , Eyespot can detect light. o Heterotroph: absorbing nutrients across the cell membrane Firm cell membrane called a pellicle Contractile Vacuole that removes excess water from the cell Pg 498: #1,3,4,5 Pg 505: #1,2 Pg 523: #1,2,4, 11, 13 Assignment is due on Thursday Oct 30th.