Ancient China

Ancient China – Guided Notes
Geography – Like Mesopotamia, Egypt, and India, Ancient Chinese culture began in a fertile ____________
valley between the _____________________ and Yangtze Rivers
Geography – only _____________% of land in China is good for _________________________
Geography – Mountains and deserts surround China and kept it _______________________ from the rest of Asia
and the world
 1. Long distances and physical barriers isolated China, blocking cultural _________________________
 2. Protecting China from _____________________________
 3. Isolation contributed to the Chinese belief that China was the center of the earth and the
only ______________________________________________.
First Chinese Civilization – the ___________ Dynasty dates back to 4000 B.C., but not much is known about it.
For many years, the Xia (shee-uh) Dynasty was thought to be a part of a ______________ that the Chinese tell as
part of their history. The Xia Dynasty was in oral histories, but no archaeological evidence was found of it
until ______________________. Xia Dynasty (2205 Xia Dynasty (2205- -1806 B.C.)1806 B.C.)
1.The Xia were _______________________________ people
2.The ruling families used elaborate and dramatic _________________________ to confirm their power to govern.
3.The rulers often acted as shamans, communicating with ___________________________ for help and guidance.
Shang Dynasty – first, _________________ dynasty of Chinese civilization was an agricultural society ruled by
an _____________________________________
Aristocracy – upper class whose wealth is based on _______________ and power is passed down through
family ________________________________________
Landowners (Aristocrats) – waged war, controlled territories for the king, and ruled over
_____________________________ farmers
Religion – Chinese believed in supernatural forces and practiced _________________________ _____________________
as well as human sacrifice.
Oracle Bones – Chinese priests would write ___________________________ on bones then crack the bones and
interpret the shapes for _______________________________.
Zhou Dynasty – ____________________________________ lasting in Chinese history, 1045 – 256 B.C.
Mandate of Heaven – claim by Zhou Dynasty kings that they had direct _____________________________ from
heaven to rule and keep ______________________ in the universe.
Dao – meaning the “_______________,” it was the key to proper behavior under ________________________________,
and if the king did not live according to it he could be replaced.
Dynastic Cycles – the patterns of _____________ and _______________ from power of the ruling families of China.
Zhou Collapse – eventually Zhou China entered a an era of poor leadership and __________ war known as the
__________________ of ____________________ States and a new dynasty called the Qin take over.
 Zhou Accomplishments –
 Advanced _____________________ and _________________ tools
 _________________ production and trade
 Written language
 ___________________________ – symbol or character that represents an object
 ___________________________ – character that combines pictographs to represent an
Confucianism – system of ______________________ and ___________________________ ideas intended to help restore
order to Chinese society
Confucius – __________________________ who lived in time of war and ________________.
- His ideas became a widely followed way of ________________
- His ideas were ethical and political, not ____________________
- Most significant elements: ___________________ and humanity
Filial Piety – the duty of family members to put the needs and desires of the ________________ head of the
family before their own (important concept in _________________________________)
 The Five Bonds:
 Parent and _____________
 Husband and ________________
 Older Sibling and Younger _______________________
 Older Friend and Younger ____________________________
 Ruler and __________________________
Male ____________________________________ was a key element in Chinese _______________________ structure.
Daoism – teaches that the will of Heaven is best followed through _____________________________ so that nature
can take its course.
- Goal is to achieve __________________________________ with the Dao.
Lao-tzu – traditionally thought of as the founder of _____________________________________.
- Wrote the ___________________________________ – guide to the Dao or “way”
- Harmony through noninterference in natural _____________________________.
Legalism – was a popular ____________________________________________ toward end of Zhou dynasty.
- Human beings are _______________________ by nature and require ________________________ laws.
Qin Shihuangdi – founder of _______________________ dynasty.
 ____________________________ treatment of his people
 Forced labor, higher taxes, and ________________________________.
Great Wall – started by Qin Shihuangdi to prevent invasion by ______________________ peoples from the
northern ______________________ desert region.
Terracotta Army – over ___________________ clay soldiers were discovered in 1974 near Qin Shihuangdi’s
burial site (guarding him in the afterlife)
Han Dynasty - considered one of the ________________________________ dynasties in Chinese history.
- Han rulers continued the Qin system of choosing government officials based on __________ rather than birth
- Han introduced civil service _______________________ and a school to train candidates
- ___________________ was invented and ______________________ was developed during the Han reign.
- Han dynasty ____________________________________ in A.D. 220 due to weak rulers.