Ancient China – Guided Notes Geography – Like Mesopotamia, Egypt, and India, Ancient Chinese culture began in a fertile ____________ valley between the _____________________ and Yangtze Rivers Geography – only _____________% of land in China is good for _________________________ Geography – Mountains and deserts surround China and kept it _______________________ from the rest of Asia and the world Isolation: 1. Long distances and physical barriers isolated China, blocking cultural _________________________ 2. Protecting China from _____________________________ 3. Isolation contributed to the Chinese belief that China was the center of the earth and the only ______________________________________________. First Chinese Civilization – the ___________ Dynasty dates back to 4000 B.C., but not much is known about it. For many years, the Xia (shee-uh) Dynasty was thought to be a part of a ______________ that the Chinese tell as part of their history. The Xia Dynasty was in oral histories, but no archaeological evidence was found of it until ______________________. Xia Dynasty (2205 Xia Dynasty (2205- -1806 B.C.)1806 B.C.) 1.The Xia were _______________________________ people 2.The ruling families used elaborate and dramatic _________________________ to confirm their power to govern. 3.The rulers often acted as shamans, communicating with ___________________________ for help and guidance. Shang Dynasty – first, _________________ dynasty of Chinese civilization was an agricultural society ruled by an _____________________________________ Aristocracy – upper class whose wealth is based on _______________ and power is passed down through family ________________________________________ Landowners (Aristocrats) – waged war, controlled territories for the king, and ruled over _____________________________ farmers Religion – Chinese believed in supernatural forces and practiced _________________________ _____________________ as well as human sacrifice. Oracle Bones – Chinese priests would write ___________________________ on bones then crack the bones and interpret the shapes for _______________________________. Zhou Dynasty – ____________________________________ lasting in Chinese history, 1045 – 256 B.C. Mandate of Heaven – claim by Zhou Dynasty kings that they had direct _____________________________ from heaven to rule and keep ______________________ in the universe. Dao – meaning the “_______________,” it was the key to proper behavior under ________________________________, and if the king did not live according to it he could be replaced. Dynastic Cycles – the patterns of _____________ and _______________ from power of the ruling families of China. Zhou Collapse – eventually Zhou China entered a an era of poor leadership and __________ war known as the __________________ of ____________________ States and a new dynasty called the Qin take over. Zhou Accomplishments – Advanced _____________________ and _________________ tools _________________ production and trade Written language ___________________________ – symbol or character that represents an object ___________________________ – character that combines pictographs to represent an idea Confucianism – system of ______________________ and ___________________________ ideas intended to help restore order to Chinese society Confucius – __________________________ who lived in time of war and ________________. - His ideas became a widely followed way of ________________ - His ideas were ethical and political, not ____________________ - Most significant elements: ___________________ and humanity Filial Piety – the duty of family members to put the needs and desires of the ________________ head of the family before their own (important concept in _________________________________) The Five Bonds: Parent and _____________ Husband and ________________ Older Sibling and Younger _______________________ Older Friend and Younger ____________________________ Ruler and __________________________ Male ____________________________________ was a key element in Chinese _______________________ structure. Daoism – teaches that the will of Heaven is best followed through _____________________________ so that nature can take its course. - Goal is to achieve __________________________________ with the Dao. Lao-tzu – traditionally thought of as the founder of _____________________________________. - Wrote the ___________________________________ – guide to the Dao or “way” - Harmony through noninterference in natural _____________________________. Legalism – was a popular ____________________________________________ toward end of Zhou dynasty. - Human beings are _______________________ by nature and require ________________________ laws. Qin Shihuangdi – founder of _______________________ dynasty. ____________________________ treatment of his people Forced labor, higher taxes, and ________________________________. Great Wall – started by Qin Shihuangdi to prevent invasion by ______________________ peoples from the northern ______________________ desert region. Terracotta Army – over ___________________ clay soldiers were discovered in 1974 near Qin Shihuangdi’s burial site (guarding him in the afterlife) Han Dynasty - considered one of the ________________________________ dynasties in Chinese history. - Han rulers continued the Qin system of choosing government officials based on __________ rather than birth - Han introduced civil service _______________________ and a school to train candidates - ___________________ was invented and ______________________ was developed during the Han reign. - Han dynasty ____________________________________ in A.D. 220 due to weak rulers.