Rhetoric What is it? • Plato: Rhetoric is the art of enchanting the soul • Philip Johnson: Rhetoric is the art of framing an argument so that it can be appreciated by an audience. • Andrea Lunsford: Rhetoric is the art, practice, and study of human communication • John Locke: That powerful instrument of error and deceit • Thomas Farrell: Rhetoric is an acquired competency, a manner of thinking that events possibilities for persuasion, conviction, action, and judgments Rhetorical elements: Alliteration • Repetition of the same sound beginning in the same sentence. Let us go forth to lead the land we love. (JFK) Veni, vidi, vici. ( Julius Caesar) Effect? Anadiplosis • repetition of one or several words, specifically of a word that ends one clause at the beginning of the next. • Men in great place are thrice servants: servants of the sovereign or state; servants of fame; and servants of business. (Francis Bacon) • Effect? Anaphora • repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines. • We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air. We shall defend our island a…” ( Churchill) Antithesis • Opposition or contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction • Extremism in defense of liberty is no vice, moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue . ( Barry Goldwater) • Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more. ( Anthony in JC) Assonance • Repetition of the same sound in words close together. • Thy kingdom come, thy will be done. • Row, row , row your boat. Asyndeton • Lack of conjunctions between coordinate phrased, clauses or words • But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. ( Lincoln/ Gettysburg address) Conceit • Extended metaphor. Elaborate figure of speech comparing two very dissimilar things. The comparison may be startling, farfetched, or intellectual. (A metaphor on steroids) • • • • • Remembrance has a Rear and Front ‘Tis something like a HouseIt has a garret also For Refuse and the Mouse (Emily Dickinson) Euphemism • Substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one that is thought to be offensive, harsh ,or blunt. • Greek for “use of good words” • • • • • • To pass away = he is no longer with us= die Conflict= war Friendly fire= accidently killing soldiers on your own side Undocumented workers= illegal aliens Revenue enhancement= more taxes Answer the call of nature= Invective • Insulting or abusive word or expression, name – calling • Jelly-boned swine • Impudent strumpet • Ignorant scum of putrescence • Philistine pig • Whining hypocritical toad • Metonymy • Substitution of one word for another which it suggests • He is a man of the cloth. ( religious) • The hand that rocks the cradle, rules the world. • words war • The pen is mightier than the sword. Paraprosdokian • Surprise or unexpected ending of a phrase or series There but for the grace of God- goes God. Change is inevitable, except from the vending machine. If I agreed with you we would both be wrong. I didn’t say it was your fault; I said I was blaming you. Polysyndeton • The repetition of conjunctions in a series of coordinate words, phrases, or clauses. • I said, “Who killed him?” and he said, “ I don’t know, and it was dark and there was water in the street and no light and windows broke and boats all tied up and everything…” Synecdoche • Understanding one thing for another; a part for the whole, or the whole for the part. • • • • • Give us this day our daily bread. The US won three gold medals. I need a new set of wheels. The white house has a new budget. My ride isn’t here yet. Syllogism • Deductive scheme of a formal argument • Contains a major premise, minor premise & conclusion • Major premise: All men are mortal. • Minor premise: Socrates is a man. • Conclusion: Socrates is mortal.