53WWIIInEurope1

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1. WWII IN EUROPE-------Allies vs Axis Powers
• Principles we fought for
• Big 3 and Military leaders
• Strategy:
– Get Hitler First
– Stalin’s 2nd Front
– Unconditional surrender
• Turning point battles---1942 to 1945
– Invasion of North Africa
– El Alamein
– Stalingrad
– Invasion of Sicily and Italy
– D-Day invasion----June 6, 1944
• Battle of the Bulge
– Yalta Conference----Feb. 1945
• Three world leaders die in April of 1945
• WWII ends in Europe with the Battle for Berlin
• Germany surrenders, May 2, 1945
– Victory in Europe or VE Day---
posters
United
Nations
•Allied Powers
became the
United Nations.
•Germans
surrender to the
United Nations to
end the war in
Europe
ALLIES
AXIS
THE BIG THREE
WINSTON CHURCHILL—Great Britain
FDR---U.S.
JOSEPH STALIN---Soviet Union
BENITO MUSSOLINI
ADOLF HITLER
HIDEKI TOJO
WWII POLITICAL
Big 3
Big Three
•Winston Churchill
Joseph Stalin FDR
•Relationship between
the Big Three was
“shaky” to say the
least…..
•“The enemy of my
enemy, is my friend”
Big 3
Stalin upset with the FDR and Churchill because they
took their time establishing a “2nd Front” in Western
Europe while Russian soldiers were being massacred
by the Germans………...
Date
Dec.
1941 to
Jan.
1942
June
1942
Jan.
1943
Nov.
1943
Place
Washington
Conference
1st
2nd
Casablanca
Conference
Teheran
Conference
Participants
Decisions
FDR
War Production,
shipping, aid for
China, diversion of
German strength from
Eastern Front and a
Winston Churchill
Big 2
FDR
Winston Churchill
Big 2
FDR
Winston Churchill
Joseph Stalin
Big 3
North African
invasion.
Plans for invasion of
Sicily and to step up
Pacific War…D-day
invasion in 1944 onto
French coast.
Unconditional Surrender
of Germany
1st time “Big 3” meet.
Stalin demands 2nd front
onto French coast….
Date of D-day invasion
decided… General
Eisenhower appointed
as commander of Allies
•4 Star, US General Dwight Eisenhower
•Graduate of West Point
•Commanded Allied invasion on North Africa in 1942
•Named Supreme Allied Commander and in charge of
D-Day.
WWII Military Leaders
•General George Patton
•Graduate of West Point
•Tank commander and commander of the 7th Army
•Germans feared Patton
•“ole blood and guts”
WWII Military Leaders
•General Bernard Montgomery
•British commanding officer
•Defeated Rommel at El Alamein
•Patton and Montgomery did not like one another
WWII Military Leaders
German General Erwin Rommel
German tank commander
known as the “Desert Fox”
Implicated in attempt to kill Hitler and would be
forced to commit suicide.
WWII Military Leaders
•West Point Graduate
•Commanding general of troops in the Philippines
•Forced off the Philippines in 1942--- “I shall
return”
General Douglas
MacArthur
•1944, Battle of Leyete Gulf---- “I have returned to
re-take the Philippines”.
•Supreme Allied Commander in the South Pacific
WWII Military Leaders
Map 16 of 45
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
World War II—Europe and North Africa
with Axis, Allied & Neutral Positions in Africa December 1941
Map 17 of 45
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Attack
Hitler’s “soft
underbelly”
Stalin’s 2nd
front
Attack
Hitler’s “soft
underbelly”
TURNING
POINT
BATTLES
1942
•Allied
invasion of
North Africa
•El Alamein
The North Africa Campaign:
The Battle of El Alamein, 1942
Gen. Ernst Rommel,
The “Desert Fox”
Gen. Bernard
Law
Montgomery
(“Monty”)
Attack
Hitler’s “soft
underbelly”
TURNING
POINT
BATTLES
1942
•Allied
invasion of
North Africa
•El Alamein
1943
•Battle of
Stalingrad.
Battle of Stalingrad:
Winter of 1942-1943
German Army
Russian Army
1,011,500 men
1,000,500 men
10,290 artillery guns
13,541 artillery guns
675 tanks
894 tanks
1,216 planes
1,115 planes
Stalin orders his troops to the “scorched earth policy”
Germans are surrounded at Stalingrad and supply lines are cut
by the Russians. Germans surrender to Soviets.
Attack
Hitler’s “soft
underbelly”
TURNING
POINT
BATTLES
1942
•Allied
invasion of
North Africa
•El Alamein
1943
•Battle of
Stalingrad.
•Allied
invasion of
Sicily
The Italian Campaign
[“Operation Torch”] :
Europe’s “Soft Underbelly”
 Allies plan assault
on weakest Axis
area - North
Africa - Nov.
1942-May 1943
 George S. Patton
leads American
troops
 Germans trapped
in Tunisia surrender over
275,000 troops.
The Battle for Sicily:
June, 1943
General
George S. Patton
The Allies Liberate Rome:
June 5, 1944
United
Nations
•Allied Powers
became the
United Nations.
•Germans
surrender to the
United Nations to
end the war in
Europe
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