# Scientific Law

A. Astronomy-the study of objects beyond earth.
B. Meteorology- the study of the forces and pressures that
cause the atmosphere to change and produce weather.
A. Geology-the study of the materials that make up Earth, the
processes that form and change these materials and the
history of the planet.
B. Oceanography- the study of the earth’s oceans and
freshwater systems.
C. Environmental Science- The study of the interactions of
organisms and their surroundings.
Biosphereall organisms
and their
environment
Hydrosphereall water on
earth.
Geospheresurface of
earth down
to its center.
Atmospherethe gases that
surround the
earth.
Anthrospherehumans
Scientific Method and Writing a formal lab report in Science
A. Scientific Method- Steps
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
B. Writing a Formal Lab Report
a) Hypothesis- an educated guess as to what
you think the outcome of the experiment
will be and why?
b) Variables
Question or Problem
Research/Background info
i.
Independent- The change that is made, does
NOT depend on another variable.
Hypothesis
ii.
Dependent- The results of the change, will
Experiment/Procedure
usually depend on the ind. var.
c) Control- things that are kept the same in an
Results
experiment
d) Procedure- detailed, numbered steps that
Analysis/Conclusion
can be replicated to come to the same
Retest
results
e) Data- results of the experiment organized
into a data table and graph with very
specific observations and numbered data
with 2 #’s after decimal.
f) Content Application-**How does this lab
relate to the content being covered in this
unit?
II. Metrics- SI International System
A. Measuring Length
a) Metrics are the only
measurement units used in
this class.
b) 1 meter = 100 cm
c) milli=one thousandth
d) Kilo= one thousand
e) 1 km= 1,000 m
f) Down Right Easy- when
decreasing, move down the
stairs and the decimal to the
right. Increasing, move up
stairs and decimals to the
left
g) Converting metrics to English
EX: miles to kilometers
EX: Down Right Easy
EX: The distance from the floor to a door
knob is approximately 1 meter.
*All measurements MUST have TWO
numbers after the decimal.
Metrics Practice
1. A potato has the mass of 0.25kg. Your recipe for
potato salad calls for 1 kilogram of potatoes.
How many potatoes do you need? 4 potatoes
2. 800mg= 0.0008 kg
3. 25.73m= 2,573 cm
4. 1.00 ml of water is poured into a cube. What is
1.00 cm3
the volume of the cube?
950
5. 0.95L=
ml
6. 1,685.36dg= 16.8536 dkg
3,972
7. 0.03972hm=
mm
B. Mass- the amount of matter in an object
1. Mass depends on what is making up the object.
2. A dense material such as lead is made up of many tightly
packed atomic particles and is more dense.
EX: An anvil in space maybe weightless but not
massless!
EX: One gram is approximately one small paper clip
Q: What instrument measures mass?
Triple Beam
Balance
C. Volume- the amount of space an object takes up.
EX: One liter is approximately a medium
size carton of milk
a)
b)
c)
d)
from the bottom of the meniscus at eye level
or if cubic, Length x width x height
Units:
a) Liquid = mL
b) Solid = cm3
True or false, an object with a large
mass has a large volume.
Measure liquid at the bottom of the
meniscus-always
Density
A. Density- mass per unit of
volume
1. Formula- Density =
mass/volume
2. Units= g/mL or g/cm3
3. Density is determined
by the alignment of the
atom, closely packed=
more dense
• How can the density of
a fluid change if it never
changes chemically?
Temperature
We use…..
Degrees Farenheit.
-Freezing point of water = 32&deg;F
-Boiling point of water = 212&deg;F
Metric system uses…..
Degrees Celsius.
-Freezing point of water = 0&deg;C
-Boiling point of water = 100&deg;C
CONVERSION
C = (F - 32)/1.8
F = (C x 1.8) + 32
***Examples on board***
1.
2.
Conversion and Math Practice
How would you check the density of our E &amp; E book?
Convert the following metrics to km.
1. 125.63mm
2. 52,638cm
3. .0568dkm
4. .004656hm
5. 154.26m
3. What are these temperatures in F&deg;?
1. 100&deg;
2. 32&deg;
3. 65&deg;
4. 24&deg;
5. 45&deg;
Dimensional Analysis
The process of changing unit from the
English to metric system and vice versa.
1. Use your “cheat sheet” for
2. Always setup units first,
then fill in the appropriate
numbers
3. Use cross multiplication to
cancel units out.
4. Always write out what you
have remaining before
completing the math.
Scientific Notation
• The expression of
extremely large or
extremely small
numbers.
• Numbers are expressed
in values of 10
Graphing:
A. Line Graphs- displays how
two variables are related
a. Independent on x axis
b. Dependent on y axis
B. Circle Graphs- used to
demonstrate percentages.
C. Bar Graphs- used to show
amount for each variable
Theory vs. Law
Scientific Theory
• An explanation based on
many observations during
repeated investigations.
• A theory can be changed or
modified with the discovery
of new data.
– Examples: Dinosaur
Extinction and Big Bang
Theory
Scientific Law
• Is a principle that describes
the behavior of a natural
phenomenon.
• Scientific laws for rules of
nature.
– Examples: Newton’s Laws of
motion and gravity