GEOGRAPHY OF AGRICULTURE

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GEOGRAPHY OF
AGRICULTURE
INTRODUCTION
 DEFINITION
 RECENT
TRENDS
 TYPES OF AGRICULTURE
TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
 SHIFTING
CULTIVATION (SC)
–TROPICAL FORESTS
–SOIL FERTILITY LOW
TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
–SC MAINTAINS SOIL FERTILITY
–BY ROTATING THE FIELDS
–NOT CROP ROTATION
–A VARIETY OF CROPS
TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
 INTENSIVE
SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
–A SMALL PARCEL OF LAND
UTILIZED FOR MAXIMUM YIELD
–CONSIDERABLE USE OF
HUMAN AND ANIMAL LABOUR
–PEASANTS – FAMILY LABOR
TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
–OTEN ‘TRADITIONAL’ TOOLS
(E.G. PLOW)
TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
–HEAVY USE OF
MANURE/FERTILIZER
TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
–INTENSIVE USE OF HILLSLOPES
TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
–DOUBLE CROPPING IN SOME
PLACES
–CAN SUPPORT LARGE
POPULATIONS
–PARTLY REFLECTS HIGH
POPULATION DENSITIES
–RICE AND OTHER GRAINS
DOMINATE
TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
 PASTORALISM
–BREEDING AND HERDING OF
ANIMALS
–USUALLY IN DESERTS,
GRASSLANDS AND LIGHTLY
WOODED GRASSY PLAINS
–PARTS OF AFRICA, MIDDLE
EAST AND CENTRAL ASIA.
TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
–TWO VARIANTS: SEDENTARY
PASTORALISM AND NOMADIC
–GRAZING OF CATTLE, SHEEP,
GOATS, CAMELS, ETC.
–TRANSHUMANCE
TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
–PRACTICE OF BARTER
–MAY CULTIVATE CROPS
–IN DECLINE
THE INDUSTRIAL-COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
 WHAT
IS INDUSTRIALCOMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE?
– IMPORTANCE OF FARM
CHANGED
– RELATION TO CAPITALISM
– CONCENTRATION OF MEANS
OF PRODUCTION
THE INDUSTRIAL-COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
 AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIALIZ-
ATION INVOLVES:
– MACHINES VS HUMAN AND
ANIMAL LABOR
– INCREASING USE OF
INDUSTRIAL INPUTS (E.G. GM
SEEDS; CHEMICAL
FERTILZERS)
– SUBSTITUTES
THE INDUSTRIAL-COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
 UNEVENNESS
OF INDUSTRIALIZATION OF AGRICULTURE
 GREEN REVOLUTION AS AN
EXAMPLE OF –INDUSTRIALIZED
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
– WHAT IS THE GR?
– BORLAUG
– WHY PEACE PRIZE?
THE INDUSTRIAL-COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
– POSITIVE EFFECTS
YIELD INCREASE>FOOD
SELF-SUFFICIENCY
THE INDUSTRIAL-COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
FARMERS
INCOME INCREASE
LABORERS’ BENEFITS
–PRODUCTIVITY
–DOUBLE CROPPING
–SPIN-OFF EFEFCTS (REPAIRS)
HENCE
GREEN REVOLUTION
THE INDUSTRIAL-COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
 NEGATIVE
EFFECTS
– ECOLOGICAL
VULNERABILITY OF
NEW SEEDS TO PESTS
WATER LOGGING
LOW RATIO OF PRODUCTION
PER WATER USE
REDUCTION IN ECOLOGICAL
DIVERSITY (A FEW VARIETIES
OF RICE)
THE INDUSTRIAL-COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
CHEMICAL POLLUTION
OF
LAND AND WATER
PHYSICAL DISABILITY DUE
TO FAULTY MACHINES,
EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES,
ETC.
THE INDUSTRIAL-COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
 SOCIAL-ECONOMIC
–LARGER FARMERS BENEFIT
MORE
–SMALLER FARMERS IN DEBT
–REVERSE TENANCY AND
CAPITALIST FARMING
THE INDUSTRIAL-COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
–LABOUR REPLACEMENT
–WOMEN
WOMEN
FORCED TO
WORK AS LABOURERS
THE INDUSTRIAL-COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
 GEOGRAPHICALLY
UNEVEN
DEVELOPMENT
– WHEAT AND RICE, ETC. NOT
GROWN EVERYWHERE
– LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN
POOR COUNTRIES (E.G. IN
AFRICA)
THE INDUSTRIAL-COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
– INTRA-COUNTRY INEQUALITY
AND THE STATE’S SPATIAL
STRATEGY
LOCATIONAL PATTERN OF
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
 GENERAL
PRINCIPLE
UNDERLYING LANDUSE


VON THUNEN’S
AGRICULTURAL
LOCATION
THEORY
– ASSUMPTIONS
LOCATIONAL PATTERN OF
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
– RESULTS
CROP THEORY
INTENSITY THEORY
– REAL WORLD EXAMPLES
ASSESSMENT
 SHOULD
VON THUNEN THEORY BE
‘MADE TO BE WRONG’?
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