Chapter 3, section 3.2

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Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements
3.2
Elements and Symbols
Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
1
Elements
Elements are
• pure substances that cannot be separated into
•
simpler substances by ordinary laboratory
processes.
the building blocks of matter.
gold
carbon
aluminum
Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
2
Sources of Some Element Names
Some elements are
named for planets,
mythological
figures,
minerals, colors,
scientists, and
places.
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Symbols of Elements
A symbol
• represents the name of an element.
• consists of 1 or 2 letters.
• starts with a capital letter.
1-Letter Symbols
C carbon
N nitrogen
F fluorine
O oxygen
2-Letter Symbols
Co cobalt
Ca calcium
Al aluminum
Mg magnesium
4
Symbols from Latin Names
Several symbols are derived from Latin names as shown
below.
Cu, copper (cuprum)
Au, gold (aurum)
Fe, iron (ferrum)
Ag, silver (argentum)
Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
5
Physical Properties of Elements
The physical properties of an element
• are observed or measured without changing its
identity.
• include the following:
Shape
Color
Odor and taste
Density
Melting point
Boiling Point
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Physical Properties of Elements
Some physical properties of
copper are:
Color
Luster
Melting point
Boiling point
Conduction
of electricity
Conduction
of heat
Red-orange
Very shiny
1083°C
2567°C
Excellent
Excellent
7
Learning Check
Select the correct symbol for each.
A. Calcium
1) C
2) Ca
3) CA
B. Sulfur
1) S
2) Sl
3) Su
C. Iron
1) Ir
2) FE
3) Fe
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Solution
Select the correct symbol for each.
A. Calcium
2) Ca
B. Sulfur
1) S
C. Iron
3) Fe
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Learning Check
Select the correct name for each symbol.
A. N
1) neon
2) nitrogen
3) nickel
B. P
1) potassium
2) phlogiston
3) phosphorus
C. Ag
1) silver
2) agean
3) gold
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Solution
Select the correct name for each:
A. N
2) nitrogen
B. P
3) phosphorus
C. Ag
1) silver
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