Seedless Plants

Seedless Plants
Nonvascular Seedless Plants
Mosses, liverworts, hornworts
Grow on soil, bark of trees, rocks
Usually live in places that are damp
Are very small
Each cell of the plant must get water from the
• Some have a rhizoid, a rootlike structure that
helps the plant hold itself in place
Seedless Vascular Plants
• Ferns, horsetails, club mosses
• These plants have vascular tissues that
specialize in moving nutrients around the
• Some of these plants have a rhizome, an
underground stem from which new leaves and
roots grow
Life cycle of Seedless Plants
• Sporophytes release spores into air
• Spores grow into male and female
• Sperm from male plants swims through water
to fertilize eggs
• Eggs grow into sporophyte and the process
• Water is necessary in the lifecycle of this type
of plant
Seed Plants
• The two groups of vascular seed plants are the
gymnosperms and the angiosperms
• Gymnosperms do not have flowers or fruit
• Angiosperms have flowers and seeds that are
protected by fruit
Characteristics of Seed Plants
• Produce seeds. Seeds nourish and protect young
• Gametophytes and sporophytes do not live
independently of each other. Gametophytes
from within the reproductive structures of the
• Sperm from seed plants is protected and forms
inside pollen. Pollen can be carried by animals or
the wind
• Seed plants can live just about anywhere and are
the most common plants on Earth today
Structure of Seeds
• Seeds form after fertilization
• Seed has three parts, sporophyte, stored food
or cotyledons, seed coat that surrounds and
protects young plant
Gymnosperms Life Cycle
• Evergreens or cone bearing plants and trees
• Seed contains a young sporophyte which grows
into an adult sporophyte
• Spores are produced and they grow into
• Females gametophytes produced eggs and male
gametophytes produce sperm in pollen
• Wind or insects carry pollen to eggs.
• Fertilized egg develop into a seed that contains a
• Vascular flowering plants that produce flowers
and fruit
• Angiosperms use flowers and fruit to attract
insects and animals to help spread pollen to