Study Skills Workshop How to Improve your AP Euro Grade Mr. Freiler Reading/Study Approaches Eliminate distractions (that’s you, Facebook!) Find a steady pace, not too slow or too fast Be efficient—work smart, not just hard A typical 7-10 page assignment should take between 30-50 minutes Be active, not passive! Focus on building understanding, not accumulating “facts” (use reading guide questions) Think of yourself as constructing an analytical framework, rather than obsessively highlighting SQ3R → SQ2RA Survey—take 1 minute to look through chapter/section headings Question—take 1 minute to ask analytical questions regarding the reading, such as: – What caused this event/development? – What are the main features of this event? – What other themes/key concepts does this relate to chronologically? – What resulted from this movement? – What is the overall significance of the movement? – How does this section fit with larger narratives? Note: Use reading guides and study guide questions to assist with this. SQ3R → SQ2RA Read—remember to focus on connecting main ideas with significant examples. Annotate—annotate rather than highlight, use margins to make notes on analytical statements, connecting key ideasexamples, noting cause-effect, etc. Review—take 2 minutes immediately after to review main ideas and make a 1-minute outline. Revisit your notes at the end of the unit or to study. Historical Thinking Skills Chronological reasoning: – Cause and effect (long- and short-term) – Continuity and change over time (What’s changing? Where? Social developments especially…) – Periodization (key dates, eras) Comparison and Contextualization – Across time and space – Situate explanations (what else during this era connects with development X?) Using Evidence to Make Arguments – Note how text or other sources arrange evidence to construct a narrative (evaluate them) – Pay attention to different types of sources (purpose, audience, bias) Interpretation and Synthesis – Historiography – Think in terms of writing an essay (anticipate question and consider possible approaches) Themes (“build” the course!) 1. The interaction of Europe with the world and the economic, political, cultural, and social effects in both directions (exploration and colonization). 2. Economic innovation increases prosperity but can also worsen or ignore poverty and inequality, raising important issues for governments (Italian city-states and recovery). 3. The movement from authoritative sources of knowledge (Bible, ancients) to objective sources and the tension between these and subjective interpretations of reality (emergence of quantitative thinking in ideas, art, culture, science, technology, economy). 4. The growth in power of the state, the competition among these nation-states, and the resulting changes in the balance of power (New Monarchs and competition for colonial empires). 5. Individualism can act as a force for progress but can conflict with the needs of the community and social institutions (women and the Renaissance). Key Concepts Key Concept 1.1: Europeans’ intellectual worldview shifted from one based on the authority of scripture and the ancients to one based on inquiry and observation of the natural world. Key Concept 1.2: The struggle for sovereignty within and among states resulted in varying degrees of political centralization. Key Concept 1.4: Europeans explored and settled overseas territories, encountering and interacting with indigenous populations. Key Concept 1.5: The capitalization of urban and agrarian economies redistributed wealth across social groups and regions of Europe. Key Concept 1.6: The experiences of everyday life were increasingly shaped by commercial and agricultural capitalism, notwithstanding the persistence of medieval social and economic structures. Visuals and Documents DO look at charts, cartoons, maps, primary sources, and art. Think about how they reflect the period in which they were produced. Make notes by them for future study. Remember, 15-20% of AP exam questions employ some form of visual stimuli. Review visuals after completing a reading assignment. Organize and Think! After completing a unit, take about 30-45 minutes to complete an outline or visual map of the unit. Focus on developing a precise and explicit grasp of key concepts, e.g., that the Renaissance promoted: classical learning, secular values, humanism, quantitative methods, etc. Connect concepts to specifics—there is no “little picture” without the big picture. Spend more time thinking and less time worrying, highlighting, memorizing.